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Safety in Parks Bibliography

Prepared by CPTED unit - Washington State University

http://www.wsu.edu

 

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

This bibliography aspires to share with experienced and

inexperienced readers alike a cross-section of the body of

research that is generally refereed to as Crime Prevention Through

Environmental Design (CPTED). While a substantial portion of the

available literature has been amassed, this bibliography is not

exhaustive. Instead, it is focused upon research and publications

that pertain to crime in open spaces.

 

The bibliography consists of relevant examples from CPTED as well

as related areas. For example, the effects of crime on park

patrons is an important issue, but the lack of research in this

area requires that general public responses to crime be examined.

The result is a compilation of literature that has direct

applications to most every built environment.

 

If you locate works that would be worthwhile additions to this

compilation please forward them to: o2design@wsu.edu, either

through an attachment or in the body of an email message.

 

NOTE: All works have been entered according to the Publication

Manual of the APA (4th ed.), sans underlining. Works in Bold

include annotations.

 

 

 

A

 

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Abrams, G., Ataov, A., Courson, W., Imeokparia, T., Melsheimer,

W., Nasar, J. L., & Nix, R. (1993). A community safety guide for

the City of Columbus. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University,

City & Regional Planning 851, Precinct Planning.

 

This guide was developed within a university course as a product

for the community. The manual addresses ways by which the

planning, design and maintenance of the environment may aid in

reducing crime. It details the following six approaches: 1)

increase personal guardianship, 2) increase natural surveillance,

3) increase visual control, 4) impede the criminal's approach and

escape, 5) increase territoriality, and 6) increase sense of

community. The net product is a good introduction to practical

measures which cities or communities may take to deter criminals

(text is supported with copious photographs, sketches and site

plans).

 

Ahlberg, J., & Knutsson, J. (1990). The risk of detection. Journal

of Quantitative Criminology, 6, 117-130.

 

This work examines means by which the likelihood of an offender

being detected may be calculated. However, the formulas presented

are not meant to be applied at the individual or situational

level, rather they are for estimating figures for the populous of

offenders. The authors discuss "the dark figure" (i.e., the number

of "crimes not detected and crimes not reported") and "the

clearance rate" (i.e., "the percentage of the crimes reported

whichare considered cleared" by police). The authors also point

out that detection at the situational level is composed of "total

risk of detection" and the "primary risk of detection". The

primary risk refers to being caught in the act, versus all

possible means of being detected (e.g., post facto). Surprisingly,

the authors do not believe that offenders have much control over

getting "caught red-handed", saying that "to get caught in the act

is a random occurrence."

 

Ahlstrom, R. V. N., Adair, M., Euler, R. T., & Euler, R. C.

(1992). Pothunting in Central Arizona: The Perry Mesa

archeological site vandalism study (Cultural Resources Report No.

13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Alfano, S. S., & Magill, A. W. (Eds.). (1976). Vandalism and

outdoor recreation: Symposium proceedings. Berkeley, CA: USDA

Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment

Station.

 

American Institute of Research. (1980). The link between crime and

the built environment: Vol. 1- The current state of knowledge.

Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S.

Government Printing Office.

 

Amir, M. (1971). Patterns in forcible rape. Chicago, IL:

University of Chicago.

 

Andropogon Associates. (1989). Landscape management and

restoration program for the woodlands of Central Park. Report for

Central Park Administration, New York City.

 

Angel, S. (1968). Discouraging crime through city planning (paper

No. 75). Berkeley, CA: Center for Planning and Development

Research, University of California at Berkeley.

 

In this early work the author alludes to the infancy stage in

which the field of CPTED then lay, concluding the paper by saying,

"We have examined some possibilities for environmental crime

prevention through (urban planning). We have tried at this stage

to work out a theoretical structure in which this type of crime

prevention can be made possible. There has been at this point no

serious attempt to face the difficulties of implementation of

these proposals.....I have taken the position of advocate planner

in suggesting possible modifications....to meet particular needs

for safety." The paper is brief (37 pg.) but includes sketches to

illustrate proposed layouts.

 

Archea, J. C. (1985). The use of architectural props in the

conduct of criminal acts. Journal of Architectural and Planning

Research, 2, 245-259.

 

Archea, J. C., & Patterson, A. (1985). Crime and the environment:

New perspectives. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research,

2, 227-229.

 

Ash, M. (1975). Architecture, planning and urban crime.

Proceedings of the National Association for the Care and

Resettlement of Offenders Conference. London, England, UK: NACRO.

 

Athena, Research Corporation. (1981). Robber interview report.

Presented to the Crime Committee of the Southland Corporation,

June 9, 1991. Dallas, TX.

 

Atkins, S., Husain, S., & Storey, A. (1991). The influence of

street lighting on crime and fear of crime (Paper 28). London:

Home Office, Crime Prevention Unit.

 

Responding to the lack of hard data on street lighting's impact on

crime, this work sought to fill the gap by studying a London

borough undergoing relighting, partly to reduce crime. Working

from an immense data set the study found "No evidence...to support

the hypothesis that improved street lighting reduces reported

crime....[a]lthough some areas and some crime types did show

reductions in night-time crime relative to daylight control."

Additionally, it found "[t]he perceived safety of women walking

alone after dark in the re-lit area was improved, but few other

effects were statistically significant."

 

Atlas, R., & LeBlanc, W. G. (1994). Environmental barriers to

crime. Ergonomics in Design, 9-16.

 

Ayoob, M. F. (1992). The truth about self-protection. New York:

Bantam Doubleday.

 

B

 

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Babs, Y., & Austin, M. (1989). Neighborhood environmental

satisfaction, victimization, and social participation as

determinants of perceived safety. Environment and Behavior, 21,

763-780.

 

Bacaioa, M., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (submitted). Trees,

sense of safety, and preference for outdoor spaces in urban public

housing. Submitted to Environment and Behavior.

 

"One hundred residents of Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes rated

computer simulations of different landscape treatments of an

outdoor space in terms of preference and safety. The simulations

of the space varied in the number of trees, tree arrangement,

subspaces created by the trees, and level of landscape

maintenance. Results indicate that-contrary to views of the

police-outdoor residential spaces with more trees are seen as

significantly more attractive, more safe, and more likely to be

used than similar spaces without trees. Implications for design

and policy are discussed."

 

Baldwin, J., & Bottoms, A. (1976). The urban criminals: A study in

Sheffield. London: Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.

 

Barr, R., & Pease, K. (1990). Crime placement, displacement and

deflection. In M. Tonry and N. Norris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A

review of research, 12. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Barr, R., & Pease, K. (1992). A place for every crime and every

crime in its place: An alternative perspective on crime

displacement. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.),

Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology

(pp. 196-216). New York: Routledge.

 

Baumer, T. L. (1978). Research on fear of crime in the United

States. Victimology, 3: 254-264.

 

Baumer, T. L. (1985). Testing a general model for fear of crime:

Data from a national sample. Journal of Research in Crime and

Delinquency, 22, 239-255.

 

Beavon, D. (1984). Crime and the environmental opportunity

structure: The influence of street networks on the patterning of

property offenses. Unpublished masters' thesis, British Columbia:

Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

 

Bechtel, R. B. (1978). Undermanning theory and crime. Crime

Prevention Through Environmental Design Theory Compendium.

Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

 

Belan, J. (1991, July). Safety and security in High Park, Toronto.

Landscape Architectural Review, 19-21.

 

Bell, J., & Burke, B. (1992). Cruising Cooper Street. In R. V.

Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case

studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

Bell, M. M., & Bell, M. M. (1987). Crime control: Deterrence and

target hardening. In E. H. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook on crime and

delinquency prevention (pp. 45-68). NY: Greenwood Press.

 

Bengtsson, A. (1970). Environmental planning for children's play.

New York: Praeger.

 

Bennett, D. (1996). The geometry of an inner city park. Landscape

Architect & Specifier News, 12, 32-36.

 

Bennett, J. W. (1969). Vandals wild. Portland, OR: Bennett

Publishing,

 

"The purpose of Vandals Wild is to help create better

understanding of the outdoors, to create concern about the

worsening behavior problems,to show what is happening in our

forests, waters and beaches (p. iii)." The authors is, as the

work's title implies, talking about the impacts of vandalism. He

goes on to discuss how it "kills" even inanimate objects in parks,

discussing costs, causes, types and actions in the process.

 

Bennett, T. (1989).Burglars' choice of targets. In D. Evans & D.

Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime. New York: Routledge.

 

In this chapter the author explains the "situational approach" to

studies of offending determinants, reviewing research methods and

sampling techniques (including video-tape and interview method).

The study discussed dealt with the concept of "risk, reward, and

ease of entry" as perceived by burglars. The study found that

decision to offend or not to offend was more influenced by risk

(of being caught) cues than by reward or ease of entry cues. These

findings are supported by a great deal of accumulated research.

 

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1983a). Constraints and inducements to

crime: The property offender's perspective. Cambridge, England:

University of Cambridge, Institute of Criminology.

 

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1983b). Offenders' perception of

targets, Home Office Research Bulletin, 15, 18-20. London:

H.M.S.O.

 

This paper briefly discusses methods and findings in using past

offenders as subjects in studying situational crime prevention. It

is one of the first such attempts, and the authors are well known

now for their ongoing use of so-called "direct methods of

investigation." Included are reviews of both photograph and

videotape methods.

 

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1984a). Constraints to burglary: The

offender's perspective. In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with

burglary. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

 

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1984b). Burglars on burglary:

Prevention and the offender. Aldershot, England: Gower.

 

Bevis, C., & Nutter, J. B. (1977). Changing street layouts to

reduce residential burglary. Atlanta: Paper presented at the

American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA.

 

Awarded the 1st Prize at the Society's '77 Student Competition,

this study found that dead end, cul-de-sac and L-type blocks

experienced lower rates of crime than did through streets or

t-type blocks (also submitted to Governor's Commission of Crime

Prevention and Control, St. Paul, MN).

 

Beyleveld, D. (1979). Identifying, explaining and predicting

deterrence. British Journal of Criminology, 19, 205-224.

 

Beyleveld, D. (1980). A bibliography on general deterrence

research. Farnborough, UK: Saxon House.

 

Blazicek, D. (1985). Patterns of victim selection among robbers: A

theoretical and descriptive analysis. Paper presented at the Fifth

International Symposium on Victimology, Zagreg, Yugoslavia.

 

Block, R. (1977a). Community, environment, and violent crime.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Panel. Atlanta, GA:

American Society of Criminology.

 

Block, R. (1977b). Violent crime, environment, interaction and

death. Lexington, MA: Lexington.

 

Block, C. R. (1994). STAC hot spot areas: A statistical tool for

law enforcement decisions. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell (Eds.),

Proceedings of the International Seminar on Environmental

Criminology and Crime Analysis (pp. 61-75). Coral Gables, FL:

Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice

Executive Institute.

 

Boggs, S. (1966). Urban crime patterns. American Sociological

Review, 30, 899-908.

 

Boggs, S. (1971). Formal and informal crime control. Sociological

Quarterly, 12, 319-327.

 

Bolden, C. M., & Sharitz, C. J. (1983). Security. In Dimensions of

parking, pp. 105-108. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute and

National Parking Association.

 

Booth, A. (1981). The built environment as a crime deterrent: A

reexamination of defensible space. Criminology, 18, 557-570.

 

Bottom, N. (1988). The parking lot and garage security handbook.

Columbia, MD: Hanrow Press.

 

Bottoms, A. E., & Wiles, P. (1992). Explanations of crime and

place. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime,

policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp.

11-35). New York: Routledge.

 

Bouza, A. V. (1995, September). Trees and crime prevention.

Proceedings of the Seventh National Urban Forest Conference (pp.

31-32). New York, NY: American Forests.

 

The author reflects on his years in the New York City Police

Department, and his efforts to incorporate trees into the streets

of Harlem and the Bronx, as well as other efforts of early

"community policing" such as transforming empty lots into

community gardens, cleaning trash from the Bronx River, as well as

other projects. The most interesting aspect of this brief

retrospective is how thoroughly the author's personal love of

forests affected his service to the people within his watch.

 

Box, S., Hale, C., & Andrews, G. (1988). Explaining fear of crime.

British Journal of Criminology, 28, 340-356.

 

Brantingham, P., & Brantingham, P. (1975b). The spatial patterning

of burglary. Howard Journal, 14, 11-23.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1977). Housing patterns

and burglary in a medium-sized American city. In J. Scott & S.

Dinitz (Eds.), Criminal justice planning (pp. 63-74). New York:

Praeger.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1978). A theoretical

model of crime site selection. In M. D. Kohn & R. L. Aders (Eds.),

Crime, law and sanctions: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 105-118).

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (Eds.). (1981a).

Environmental criminology. Beverly Hills: Sage.

 

According to the authors, a crime takes place when all of the

essential elements are present. These elements consist of: a law,

an offender, a target, and a place. They characterize these as

"the four dimensions of crime", with Environmental criminology

studying the last of the four dimensions. This important book

chronicles the subject from its inceptions through the '80s.,

discussing research, major areas of study . Chapters are written

by such authors as Brown & Altman, Wood, Mayhew and Mawby.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1981b). Notes on the

geometry of crime. In P.J. Brantingham & P.L. Brantingham (Eds.),

Environmental criminology (pp. 27-54). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984a). Burglar mobility

and crime prevention planning. In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.),

Coping with burglary (pp. 77-95). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984b). Patterns in

crime. New York: Macmillan.

 

Brantingham, P. L. (1989). Crime prevention: The North American

experience. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of

crime. New York: Routledge.

 

In this thorough and insightful chapter the author chronicles the

conception, conceptual models of, and changes to crime prevention

on this continent. In calling for further theoretical and applied

research, she concludes that of the two levels at which prevention

is proceeding-standardized programmes versus those specific to a

socio-geographic environment-"...standardized programming is

unlikely to work..." thus more investigation is needed in the

latter area.

 

Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1975a). Residential

burglary and urban form. Urban Studies, 12, 273-284.

 

Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1993). Nodes, paths, and

edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical

environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 53-28.

 

This paper is extremely useful for the reader wishing an

understanding of the past two decades of research on the

relationship between crime and the physical environment. Over 200

works are cited in the process of discussing the field's progress

and status. The authors utilize a theoretical framework to

describe the range of studies conducted on the subject. This

includes: 1) the complex etiology of crime; 2) the crime patterns

of individuals, with particular attention to how the physical

environment influences their behavior; 3) aggregate crime

patterns, with particular attention to how the physical

environment influences them. Also introduced are the concepts of

nodes, paths, edges and an 'environmental backcloth'. The authors

close with a discussion of general directions research should take

from this point. They note the uniquely well developed

understanding of burglary and suggest that research in other areas

is needed to bring them up to similar levels. In particular they

bring up the need for investigation of cognitive mappings pointing

out that "the cognitive physical and spatial environment does not

exist independently of the cognitive, social, cultural, economic,

legal and temporal environment."

 

Brantingham, P. J., Brantingham, P. L., & Butcher, D. (1986).

Perceived and actual crime risks. In P. Figlio, S. Hakim & G.

Rengert (Eds.), Metropolitan crime patterns (139-160). New York:

Criminal Justice Press.

 

Brantingham, P. J., Brantingham, P. L., & Molumby, T. (1977).

Perceptions of crime in a dreadful enclosure. Ohio Journal of

Science, 77, 256-261.

 

Brantingham, P. J., Dyreson, D. A., & Brantingham, P. L. (1976).

Crime seen through a cone of resolution. American Behavioral

Scientist, 20, 261-273.

 

Brantingham, P. J., & Faust, F. L. (1976). A conceptual model of

crime prevention. Crime and Delinquency, 22, 284-296.

 

Brill, W. H. (1972). Security in public housing: A synergistic

approach. In Deterrence of Crime in and Around Residences: Papers

presented at the Fourth National Symposium on Law Enforcement

Science and Technology. College Park, MD: University of Maryland.

 

Brill & Associates. (1976). Victimization, fear of crime, and

altered behavior: A profile of the crime problems in William

Nickerson Jr. Gardens, Los Angeles, CA. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Housing and Urban Development.

 

This report is one of a series on 'Victimization, Fear of Crime,

and Altered Behavior' in public housing projects. The reports aim

at gathering statistical information to be used for comprehensive

security plans at the projects. One section deals with building

design and location of crimes committed.*

 

Brooks, J. (1974). The fear of crime in the United States. Crime

and Delinquency, 20, 241-244.

 

Brower, S. (1980). Territory in urban settings. In I. Altman et

al. (Eds.), Human Behavior in the Environment: Advances in Theory

and Research, Vol. 4. New York: Plenum.

 

Brower, S., Dockett, K., & Taylor, R. (1983). Residents'

perceptions of territorial features and perceived local threat.

Environment and Behavior, 15, 419-437.

 

Responses to varying images of defensible space features and

territorial signs were measured utilizing line drawings with

variations in key features. "Results supported the following

hypotheses: (1) that the presence of real barriers and plantings

are interpreted as a deterrent to intrusion and an indication of

stronger occupant territorial attitudes, and (2) that as local

perceived threat increases, territorial displays are viewed as

less effective deterrents to intrusion.

 

Brown, B. B. (1983). Territoriality, street form, and residential

burglary: Social and environmental analyses (Doctoral

dissertation, University of Utah, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts

International, 44, 357B.

 

Brown, B. B. (1985). Residential territories: Cues to burglary

vulnerability. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research, 2,

231-243.

 

This paper uses "Newman's work on defensible space and Altman's

work on territoriality to formulate a hypothesis that certain

design elements enhance or reflect residential territoriality and

thereby influence burglar's target selections. Specifically,

evidence on the links from real and symbolic barriers, traces, and

detectability features to burglary vulnerability and residential

territoriality are reviewed." The review of relevant literature is

effective and useful.

 

Brown, B. B. (1987). Territoriality. In D. Stokols & I. Altman

(Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology, 3 (pp. 505-531).

 

Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1981a). Territoriality and residential

crime: A conceptual framework. In P. Brantingham & P. Brantingham

(Eds.), Environmental criminology (pp. 55-76). Beverly Hills, CA:

Sage Publications.

 

Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible

space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal

of Environmental Psychology, 3, 203-220.

 

With this study the focus of burglary prevention was heading

towards use of cues. It was developing territoriality theories to

great detail. The weaknesses the authors experienced, however,

appear to have led to studies employing burglars. In that way

researchers were able to overcome much of the guesswork which was

otherwise necessary to determine decision making by criminals.

 

Brown, B. B., & Bentley, D. L. (1993). Residential burglars judge

risk: The role of territoriality. Journal of Environmental

Psychology, 13, 51-61.

 

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1988a). Criminal victimization in

the United States, 1986. National Crime Survey Report. Washington,

DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1988b). Criminal victimization,

1987. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1992). Criminal victimization in

the United States, 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of

Justice.

 

Burgess, J. (in progress). Perceptions of risk in recreational

woodlands in the urban fringe. London, UK: Countryside Commission.

 

The extensive work examines recreation users' perceptions of risk

in "well-wooded landscapes on the fringes of towns and cities" in

the United Kingdom. It evolved out of an effort to increase and

broaden the patronage of these settings. As a potential deterrent

to usage, perceptions of risk were examined from a number of

perspectives, including: kinds of perceived risks, extent to which

perceptions of risk inhibit use, and strategies recommended for

reducing perceptions of risk. Also included is a thorough review

of existing literature. Qualitative methods (participant

observation and focus groups) were employed in an attempt to

improve on the shortcomings of other methods, especially rating of

photographs. Data collection was completed between January and May

of 1993, at two urban fringe sites. Noteworthy findings include

those concerning "enclosure", "entrapment", and isolation.

Addressed are specific impacts of these factors on patrons'

perceptions of risk and their use of woodlands. Gender differences

are addressed, as are recommendations relevant to environmental

designers and resource managers.

 

Burgess, J., Harrison, C. M., & Limb, M. (1988). People, parks and

the urban green: A study of popular meanings and values for open

spaces in the city. Urban Studies, 25, 455-473.

 

Bynum, T. S, & Purri, D. M. (1984). Crime and architectural style:

An examination of the environmental design hypothesis. Criminal

Justice and Behavior, 11, 179-196.

 

Historically, social scientists have argued that human behavior

is, to a large degree, a response to environmental conditions.

Recently, a group of criminologists posited a direct relationship

between certain environmental structures and reported crime rates.

Studies exploring this area have pointed to the association

between crime rates and high rise residences as support for their

position....Using victimization techniques, the experiences of

residents of several high and low rise structures in a

traditionally low crime area such as the college campus were

investigated.....Although causality can not be inferred from the

findings, a positive association was observed between high rise

areas and property crime rates.*

 

C

 

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Campbell, F., Hendee, J., & Clarke, R. (1979). Law and order in

public parks. Park and Recreation, 6, 35-36.

 

Canter, D., & Larkin, P. (1993). The environmental range of serial

rapists. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 63-69.

 

This article at first seems more appropriate for aiding in the

solving of crimes, however the application to deterrence is

apparent. The authors, after studying 45 sexual offenders' spatial

activity, found support for the 'domocentricity' theory, as well

as the Marauder and Circle-and-Range hypotheses, while the

Commuter model found no support. This suggests that offenders

range out from a central point; their homes. This concentration of

their offenses seems to offer support for the 'hot spot' theory.

If offenders tend to reside in patterns other than purely random

manners, then the possibility of non-random offense patterns would

mean overall crime rates would be greater in and around their

spatial range.

 

Capone, D. L., & Nichols, W. W. (1975). Crime and distance: An

analysis of offender behavior in space. Proceedings of the

Association of American Geographers, 7 (pp. 45-49).

 

Capone, D. L., & Nichols, W. W. (1976). Urban structure and

criminal mobility. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 199-213.

 

Carpenter, C., Glassner, B., Johnson, B. D., & Loughlin, J.

(1988). Kids, drugs, and crime. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

 

Carroll, J. (1982). Committing a crime: The offender's decision.

In V. Konecni & E. Ebbesen (Eds.), The criminal justice system: A

social-psychological analysis. New York: Freeman.

 

Carroll, J., & Payne, J. (1978). A psychological approach to

deterrence: The evaluation of criminal opportunities. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1512-1520.

 

Carter, R. L., & Hill, K. Q. (1979). The criminal's image of the

city. New York: Pergaman.

 

Carter, R. L., & Hill, K. Q. (1980). Area-images and behavior: An

alternative perspective for understanding urban crime. In D.

Georges-Abeyie & K. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A Spatial Perspective

(pp. 193-204). New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Catallo, R. (1994). Lessons from success stories. Toronto,

Ontario: Safe City Committee, Planning and Development Department.

 

Chaiken, J., & Chaiken, M. (1982). Varieties of criminal behavior.

Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

 

Chapin, D. (1991, July). Making green spaces safer places:

Experiences in New York City. Landscape Architectural Review, 16-

18.

Charland, J. (1988). Women's personal security, fear of crime, and

the urban environment. Unpublished master's major paper, Faculty

of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario,

Canada.

 

Chenoweth, R. E. (1978). The effects of territorial markings on

residents of two multi-family housing developments: A partial test

of Newman's theory of defensible space (Doctoral dissertation,

University of Illinois, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts

International, 38, 5088. (University Microfilms No. GAX78-03955).

 

Chimbos, P. (1973). A study of breaking and entering offenses in

Northern City, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Criminology and

Corrections, 15, 316-325.

 

Christensen, H. H. & Clark, R. N. (1978). Understanding and

controlling vandalism and other rule violations in urban

recreation areas. Proceedings of the National Urban Forest

Conference, 1. Washington, DC.

 

Christensen, H. H., Johnson, D. R., & Brooks, M. H. (1992).

Vandalism: Research, prevention and social policy (General

Technical Report PNW-GTR-293). Portland, OR: U.S. Forest Service,

Pacific Northwest Research Station.

 

Chubb, M., & Westover, T. (1981). Anti-social behavior: Typology,

messages and implications for recreation resource managers. Land

use allocation. St. Paul, MN: USDA Forest Service, North Central

Experiment Station.

 

Cimler, E., & Beach, L. (1981). Factors involved in juveniles'

decisions about crime. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8, 275-286.

 

Citizens Task Force. (March, 1990). Central Park: The heart of the

city. New York: Citizens Task Force on the Use and Security of

Central Park.

 

This report is a compilation of a research study conducted to

improve understanding of use and security in New York's Central

Park. Notable findings include: the northern end of the park is

perceived to be the most unsafe; crime within the park is

noticeably lower than in surrounding neighborhoods; there are

relatively few police assigned to the expanse of the Park; crime

in the Park is perceived to be worse than it is; community

policing has been highly effective (including assigning radios to

vendors, and Interwatch radios to runners). Recommendations are

broad and specific, yet pertain primarily to policing, user

awareness and technologically oriented means for crime detection,

with some crime deterrence. Although terrain and vegetation are

mentioned as significant influences on perceptions of safety and

actual crime, recommendations are few for dealing with these

elements. Most notably, undergrowth and dead trees were cited for

removal, and sight lines were recommended to be kept clear.

 

Clarke, A., & Lewis, M. (1982). Fear of crime among the elderly.

British Journal of Criminology, 22, 49-62.

 

Clarke, R. V. (1980a). Situational crime prevention: Theory and

practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 136-147.

 

Clarke, R. V. (1980b). Situational crime prevention: Its theory

basis and practical scope. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime

and justice: An annual review of research, 4. Chicago: University

of Chicago Press.

 

Clarke, R. V. (1992). Situational crime prevention: Successful

case studies. New York: Harrow and Heston.

 

Clarke, R. V., & Mayhew, P. (1992). Parking patterns and car theft

risks: Policy-relevant findings from the British Crime Survey. In

R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 91-107).

Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

 

Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. (1985). Modeling offenders'

decisions: A framework for research and policy. In M. Tonry & N.

Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, 6.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Clarke, R. V., & Hope, T. (Eds.). (1984). Coping with burglary.

Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

 

Clarke, R. V., & Mayhew, P. (Eds.). (1980). Designing out crime.

London: H.M.S.O.

 

A series of excellent articles on reducing crime and vandalism by

improving design and management of the environment in order to

reduce opportunities for offending. This is a 'situational'

approach to crime prevention and includes discussions of lock

technology, surveillance, siting, and publicity campaigns

 

Claster, D. (1967). Comparison of risk perception between

delinquents and non-delinquents. Journal of Criminal Law,

Criminology, and Police Science, 58: 80-86.

 

Cohen, J. (1983). Incapacitation as a strategy for crime control:

Possibilities and pitfalls. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime

and justice: An annual review of research, 5. Chicago: University

of Chicago Press.

 

Cohen, L. E., & Cantor, D. (1981). Residential burglary in the

United States: Lifestyles and demographic factors associated with

the probability. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 18,

113-127.

 

Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate

trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review,

44: 588-608.

 

Conklin, J. (1971). Dimensions of community response to the crime

problem. Social Problems, 18, 373-385.

 

Conklin, J. (1975). The impact of crime. New York: Macmillan.

 

Conklin, J., & Bittner, E. (1973). Burglary in a suburb.

Criminology, 11, 206-231.

 

Conners, E. F. (1976) Public safety in park and recreation

settings. Parks and Recreation, 2 (1), 20-21, 55-56.

 

Conway, K. L. (1980). Public perceptions of, and attitudes toward,

crime in the parks of a major metropolitan area. Unpublished

masters' thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station.

 

Cook, P. (1980). Research in criminal deterrence: Laying the

groundwork for the second decade. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.),

Crime and justice: An annual review of research, 2. Chicago:

University of Chicago.

 

Cook, P. (1986). The demand and supply of criminal opportunities.

In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual

review of research, 7. Chicago: University of Chicago.

 

Cooper-Marcus, C., & Sarkissian, W. (1986). Housing as if people

mattered: Site guidelines for medium-density family housing.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

 

This highly readable book covers a variety of user groups and site

design issues in housing developments. Chapter 13, Security and

Vandalism, deals exclusively with crime in such developments,

providing a rare variety of useful sketches and photographs to

illustrate the text. Design guidelines extensively reference past

research on the crime and housing and themselves offer suggestions

which appear to the reader as simple yet valuable. Included are

major subject headings are Penetrability, Territoriality,

Opportunities for Surveillance, Ambiguity, Resident Conflicts,

Vandalism, and Management.

 

Cornish, D. B. (1994). Crimes as scripts. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell

(Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Environmental

Criminology and Crime Analysis (pp. 30-45). Coral Gables, FL:

Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice

Executive Institute.

 

Cornish, D. B. (1994). The procedural analysis of offending and

its relevance for situational prevention. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.),

Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 91-107). Monsey, NY:

Criminal Justice Press.

 

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (Eds.). (1986). The reasoning

criminal: Rational choice perspective on offending. New York:

Springer-Verlag.

 

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1987). Understanding crime

displacement: An application of rational choice theory.

Criminology, 25, 933-947.

 

Covington, J., & Taylor, R. B. (1990). Neighborhood structure,

neighborhood change, and fear of crime (Working Paper 19).

Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy

Research.

 

Cranz, G. (1980). Women in urban parks. Signs: Journal of Women in

Culture and Society, 5, 579-595.

 

Creechan, J., Hartnagel, T., & Silverman, R. (1978). Attitudes

toward crime and law enforcement. Unpublished manuscript.

 

Cromwell, P., Olson, J., & Avary, D. (1991). Breaking and

entering: An ethnographic analysis of burglary. Newbury Park, CA:

Sage.

 

Crowe, T. D. (1988). An ounce of prevention: A new role for law

enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 57, 18-24.

 

Written by then director of the National Crime Prevention

Institute, this audiences-specific article gives a quick

introduction to the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

(CPTED) concept. It discusses the principals of CPTED and explains

via easily legible plan drawings examples of good and bad design.

 

Crowe, T. D. (1990, Fall). Designing safer schools. School

Safety,. pp. 9-13.

 

Crowe, T. D. (1991). Crime prevention through environmental

design. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

 

Cunnen, J. M. L. (1990). The light solution to crime: Lighting

makes life secure. Lighting Design and Application, 20, 16-17+.

 

Cunningham, W. C., Strauchs, J. J., & Van Meter, C. W. (1991).

Private security: Patterns and trends. Research in Brief.

Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

 

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Davidson, R. N. (1981). Crime and environment. London: Croom Helm.

 

This work offers "no blockbusting theory" on crime and the

environment, but it does deal with spatial elements of crime

patterns. The book repeatedly examines the theme of "spatial

inequalities in patterns." The author's primary emphasis is upon

offenses against persons and their property.

 

Davidson, R. N. (1982). Micro-environments of violence:

Situational factors in violent crime. Paper presented at IBG Crime

and Space Conference, London.

 

Davidson, R. N. (1986). Micro-environments of assault: The role of

location in violent injury. In D. Herbert, D. Evans, R. Davidson,

S. Smith, & R. Mawby (Eds.), The geography of crime (Occasional

Paper 7, pp. 24-32). UK: North Staffordshire Polytechnic,

Department of Geography and Recreation Studies.

 

Davidson, R. N., & Locke, T. (1992). Local area profiles of crime:

Neighborhood crime patterns in context. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe

and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in

environmental criminology (pp. 60-72). New York: Routledge.

 

Day, K. (1995, March). Making the solution fit the crime. Sexual

assault prevention and women's use of the college campus. Paper

presented at EDRA 26, Boston, MA.

 

Decker, S. H., Wright, R., & Logie, R. H. (1993). Perceptual

deterrence among active residential burglars: A research note.

Criminology, 31, 135-147.

 

The authors, two of whom are well known for their work with active

and former offenders, here brief the reader on their findings

comparing responses by active criminals and a non-criminal control

group. The willingness to offend findings are important and not

altogether expected, but most importantly they point out that

"when studying perceptual deterrence in relation to serious

offenses such as residential burglary, it is important to include

real criminals."

 

DeFrances, C. J., & Titus, R. M. (1993). Urban planning and

residential burglary outcomes. In J. L. Nasar (Ed.), Landscape and

urban planning: Special issue on urban design research, 26,

179-191.

 

Dietrick, B. (1977). The environment and burglary victimization in

a metropolitan suburb. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of

the American Society of Criminology, Atlanta, GA.

 

Donnely, P. (1988). Individual and neighborhood influences on fear

of crime. Sociological Focus, 22, 69-85.

 

Dowell, C. D. (1973, January). Panic in the parks. Parks and

Recreation.

 

DuBow, F. E., McCabe, E., & Kaplan, G. (1979). Reactions to crime:

A critical review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration,

National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

 

Duffala, D. C. (1976). Convenience stores, robbery, and physical

environmental features. American Behavioral Scientist, 20,

227-246.

 

Dunlap, E., Johnson, B., Sanabria, H., Holliday, E., Lipsey, V.,

Barnett, M., Hopkins, W., Sobel, I., Randolph, D., & Chin, K.

(1990). Studying crack users and their criminal careers: The

scientific and artistic aspects of locating hard-to-reach subjects

and interviewing them about sensitive topics. Contemporary Drug

Problems, 17, 121-144.

 

Dunn, C. S. (1980a). Crime area research. In D. E. Georges-Abeyie

and K. D. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective. New York:

Columbia University Press.

 

Dunn, C. S. (1980b). Social area structure of suburban crime. In

D. E. Georges-Abeyie and K. D. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial

perspective (pp. 136-137). New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1985, January). Negligence in

visitor security. Parks and Recreation.

 

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1986, February). Future trends in

park protection. Parks and Recreation.

 

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1990, February). The ins and outs

of park law enforcement. Parks and Recreation.

 

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Eck, J. (1983). Solving crimes: The invention of burglary and

robbery. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Eck, J., Spelman, W. (1992). Thefts from vehicles in shipyard

parking lots. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention:

Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

Egan, J. (1991, July). Breaking through the myth of public safety.

Landscape Architectural Review, 7-10.

 

Ehrenhard, J. E. (Ed.). (1991). Coping with site looting:

Southeastern perspectives: Essays in archeological resource

protection. Atlanta, GA: National Park Service, Southeast Region,

Interagency Archeological Services Division.

 

Engstad, P. (1975). Environmental opportunities and the ecology of

crime. In R. Silverman & J. Teevan, Jr. (Eds.), Crime in Canadian

society (193-211). Toronto: Butterworth.

 

Ennis, P. (1967). Criminal victimization in the United States.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Erez, E. (1979). Situational analysis of crime: Comparison of

planned and impulsive offenses. (Doctoral dissertation). London:

University Microfilms International.

 

Erskine, H. (1974). The polls: Fear of violence and crime. Public

Opinion Quarterly, 38, 131-148.

 

Eskridge, C. (1983). Prediction of burglary. Journal of Criminal

Justice, 11, 67-76.

 

Estrella, S. (1988). Stemming crime through environmental design.

Security Management, 32, 86-89.

 

This two page article serves to introduce readers of this magazine

(security managers) to the origination and development of CPTED

(crime prevention through environmental design), and how they may

incorporate it into their businesses. While it is neither

empirical nor innovative, it does offer a quality, albeit very

brief, discussion of the topic.

 

Evans, D. J. (1987). Burglary within an affluent housing area.

Unpublished research note.

 

Evans, D. J. (1989). Geographical analyses of residential

burglary. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime.

New York: Routledge.

 

Evans, D. J., Fyfe, N. R., & Herbert, D. T. (1992). Crime,

policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology. New York:

Routledge.

 

Evans, D. J., & Herbert, D. T. (Eds.). (1989). The geography of

crime. New York: Routledge.

 

Evans, D. J., & Oulds, G. (1984). Geographical aspects of the

incidence of residential burglary in Newcastle-under-Lyme, UK.

TESG, 75, 344-355.

 

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Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1980). Crime in the United

States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Feeney, F. (1986). Robbers as decision-makers. In D. Cornish & R.

V. Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal (pp. 53-71). New York:

Springer-Verlag.

 

Feeney, F., & Weir, A. (Eds.). (1973a). The prevention and control

of robbery: The response of the police and other agencies to

robbery, IV. Davis, CA: University of California.

 

This is the fourth of a four volume series of which this is the

most relevant to the topic at hand. The studies contained in this

volume seek to explain the criminal justice system's operation

regarding robbery. Underlying this purpose was the goal of

understanding the system's relevance to the problems of

controlling and preventing robbery.

 

Feeney, F., & Weir, A. (Eds.). (1973b). The prevention and control

of robbery: Summary. Davis, CA: University of California.

 

"This study has primarily been concerned with describing the

patterns of robbery in a single American city--Oakland,

California--and the response of the criminal justice agencies in

that city to the crime. It is an exploratory study designed to

produce the kind of detailed, integrated information necessary for

serious thinking and planning about the subject....The findings of

the study do...bring to light some important things that have been

unknown or little understood (pp. 3-4)."

 

Feldman, M. (1977). Criminal behavior: A psychological analysis.

New York: Wiley.

 

Felson, M. (1983). The ecology of crime. In Encyclopedia of Crime

and Justice. New York: Free Press-Macmillan.

 

Felson, M. (1986). Predicting crime potential at any point on the

city map. In P. Figlio, S. Hakim, & G. Rengert (Eds.),

Metropolitan crime patterns (139-160). New York: Criminal Justice

Press.

 

Felson, M. (1987). Routine activities and crime prevention in the

developing metropolis. Criminology, 25, 911-931.

 

Not an empirical study, this paper offers a discussion of research

on routine activities theory. Specifically, it addresses changes

in the urban fabric and how those evolving relationships affect

crime. The author focuses on streets and their impact on

lifestyles and hence on contact between offenders and the public,

referring to these meetings as "systematic accidents". He also

introduces the term "sociocirculatory system", a reference to the

latter impact of streets and vehicles on society, and especially

the lack of regular neighborhood contact and the familiarity with

people and place that results. Several excellent examples are

given where these changes have occurred. The "facility" is the

social structure which he suggests is the outcome. Examples

include industrial parks, mini-malls, and so-called smart office

buildings. In the long term the author suggests that the switch in

urban structure means "the facility would become the main

organizational tool for crime prevention (p. 926)." Finally, he

offers the designer as one of the most important emerging

preventers of crime as the "physical design and kinetic

management" of urban landscapes decides more and more how and how

often criminal and target meet.

 

Felson, M., & Cohen, L. (1980). Human ecology and crime: A routine

activity approach. Human Ecology, 8, 389-406.

 

Figlio, P.,. Hakim, S., & Rengert, G. (Eds.). (1986). Metropolitan

crime patterns. New York: Criminal Justice Press.

 

Fisher, B. S. (in press). Neighborhood business proprietors'

reactions to crime. Journal of Security Administration.

 

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1991, July). Prospect and refuge:

Fear of crime in and the building design characteristics. Paper

presented at the Joint ASCP and ASEOP International Conference,

Oxford, England.

 

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1992). Fear of crime in relation to

three exterior site features: Prospect, refuge, and escape.

Environment and Behavior, 24, 35-65.

 

"This article examines fear of crime in relation to exterior site

features...The authors propose and test a theoretical model that

posits that places that afford offenders refuge, and victims

limited prospect and escape, will be seen as unsafe...The findings

confirmed that fear of crime was highest in areas with refuge for

potential offenders and low prospect and escape for potential

victims."

 

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1995). Fear spots in relation to

microlevel physical cues: Exploring the overlooked. Journal of

Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 214-239.

 

Fleming, R., & Burrows, J. (1986). The case for lighting as a

means of preventing crime. Home Office Research Bulletin, 22,

14-17. London: H.M.S.O.

 

Fletcher, J. E. (1983a). The estimated effect of user fees and

controlled visitor access in reducing actual and perceived safety

and security problems at Sommerville Lake, Texas. Vicksburg, MS:

U.S. Department of the Defense, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Waterways Experiment Station.

 

Fletcher, J. E. (1983b). Assessing the impact of actual and

perceived safety and security problems on park use and enjoyment.

Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 1, 21-36.

 

Fletcher, J. E. (1984). Effect of controlled access and entrance

fees on park visitor safety and security. Journal of Park and

Recreation Administration, 2.

 

Florida Center for Community Design & Research. (1993). Safe

schools design guidelines: Recommendations for a safe & secure

environment in Florida's public schools (Project No.

4950-33-10-056-LO).

 

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1979). Reducing residential crime and

fear: The Hartford neighborhood prevention program. Boston, MA:

Center for Survey Research, The University of Massachusetts,

Boston, the Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard

University, and Hartford Institute of Criminal and Social Justice.

 

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1982). Neighborhood crime, fear, and

social control: A second look at the Hartford Program. Washington,

DC: Center for Survey Research.

 

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1986). A three-pronged effort to

reduce crime and fear of crime: The Hartford experiment. In D.

Rosenbaum (Ed.), Community crime prevention: Does it work?.

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Francis, M. (1984). Some different meanings attached to a city

park and community gardens. Landscape Journal, 101-112.

 

Furstenberg, F. (1971). Public reaction to crime in the streets.

The American Scholar, 40, 601-610.

 

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Gabor, T. (1981). The crime displacement hypothesis: An empirical

examination. Crime and Delinquency, 27, 390-404.

 

Gardiner, R. A. (1978). Design for safe neighborhoods: The

environmental security planning and design process. Washington,

DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

 

This manual describes the concept of 'environmental security', a

comprehensive planning process for analyzing and understanding

neighborhood crime problems. The manual emphasizes a preventative

orientation to crime, utilizing physically and socially

'reinforcing' solutions.*

 

Garofalo, J. (1977a). Public opinion about crime: The attitudes of

victims and nonvictims in selected cities. Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

 

Garofalo, J. (1977b). Victimization and the fear of crime in major

cities. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American

Association for Public Opinion Research, Buck Hill Falls, PA.

 

Garofalo, J. (1979). Victimization and the fear of crime. Journal

of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 80-97.

 

Gates, L., & Rohe, W. (1987). Fear and reactions to crime. A

revised model. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 22, 425-453.

 

Geason, S., & Wilson, P. R. (1989). Designing out crime: Crime

prevention through environmental design. Canberra, Australia:

Australian Institute of Criminology.

 

Georges-Abeyie, D. E., & Harries, K. D. (Eds.). (1980). Crime: A

spatial perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Gibbs, J., & Shelly, P. (1982). Life in the fast lane: A

retrospective view by commercial thieves. Journal of Research in

Crime and Delinquency, 19, 299-330.

 

Gimblett, H. R., Itami, R. M., & Fitzgibbon, J. E. (1985). Mystery

in an information processing model of landscape preference.

Landscape Journal, 4, 87-95.

 

Gobster, P. H. (1993). Managing urban open spaces for naturalness:

Preferences of Chicago Housing Authority children. G. A. Vander

Stoep (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1993 Northeastern Recreation

Research Symposium (pp. 64-67). Radnor, PA: US Department of

Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment

Station.

 

Godbey, G., Patterson, A., & Brown, L. (1979). The relationship of

crime and fear of crime among the elderly to leisure behavior and

use of public leisure services. Washington, DC: American

Association of Retired Persons.

 

An extensive study by several of the leaders in elderly/crime

studies. "This study examined crime and fear of crime among the

elderly residing in urban areas in regard to its effect upon their

leisure and use of public recreation and park services. The study

also sought techniques useful in minimizing such crime and fear of

crimeFear of crime was found to be pervasive among the population

surveyed and victims were particularly fearful. Nine percent of

all those surveyed reported being the victim of crime during the

last year." Approximately 150 pgs.

 

Godbey, G. (1981). Old people and urban parks: An exploratory

study. Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

 

Goffman, E. (1963). Behavior in public places: Notes on social

organization of gathering. New York: Free Press.

 

Gold, S. M. (1969). A concept for outdoor recreation planning in

the inner city. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of

Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

 

Gold, S. M. (1970). Urban violence and contemporary defensive

cities. Journal of American Institute of Planners, 36, 146-159.

 

Gold, S. M. (1972). Nonuse of neighborhood parks. Journal of the

American Institute of Planners, 38, 369-378.

 

Somewhat dated, this article discusses various implications/causes

of park non-use, including personal safety. Causes of non-use

presented include: Social Restraints, Access, Site Characteristics

and Personal Safety. The author discusses implications and offers

possible solutions to the problems discussed. This work may be of

more use for gaining a perspective on how the field has progressed

than for realizing new ideas.

 

Goldberg, F., & MIchelson, W. (1978). Defensible space as a factor

in combating fear among the elderly: Evidence from Sherbourne

Lanes. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Theory

Compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

 

Golledge, R. G., & Stimson, R. S. (1997). Spatial behavior : A

geographic perspective. New York : Guilford Press.

 

Goodman, L. H., Miller, T., & DeForest, P. (1966). A study of the

deterrent value of crime prevention measures as perceived by

criminal offenders. Washington, DC: Bureau of Social Science

Research.

 

Gordon, M. T., & Riger, S. (1978). The fear of rape project.

Victimology: An International Journal, 3, 346-347.

 

Gordon, M. T., Riger, S., LeBailly, R., & Health, L. (1981).

Crime, women and the quality of urban life. In C. Simpson (Ed.),

Women and the American city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Grant, A. (1988). Women and public urban space: Women's freedom of

movement in the City of Toronto. Unpublished master's thesis,

Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

 

Greenberg, S. W. (1986). Fear and its relationship to crime,

neighborhood deterioration and informal social control. In J. M.

Bryne and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Social Ecology of Crime (pp.

47-62). New York: Springer Verlag.

 

Greenberg, S. W., & Rohe, W. M. (1984). Neighborhood design and

crime: A test of two perspectives. American Planning Association

Journal, 5, 48-61.

 

(This) paper assesses the validity of two perspectives on the

effect of the physical design of buildings, sites, and

neighborhoods on crime--the defensible space approach and the

opportunity approach. Study examined differences in physical

characteristics and various dimensions of informal social control

within and among three pairs of neighborhoods matched on racial

composition and economic status but with distinctly different

crime levels. Study results lend far more support to opportunity

model of crime in residential areas than to the defensible space

model.*

 

Greenberg, S. W., Williams, J. R., & Rohe, W. M. (1982). Safety in

urban neighborhoods: A comparison of physical characteristics and

informal territorial control in high and low crime neighborhoods.

Population and Environment, 5, 141-165.

 

Griswold, D. B. (1992). Crime prevention and commercial burglary:

A time series analysis. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime

prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

Grove, G. R. (1976). Role theory considered as an influence on

criminal and deviant behavior in the Utah State Park system-a

manager problem. Unpublished master's thesis, Utah State

University, Logan.

 

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Hagedorn, J. (1990). Back in the field again: Gang research in the

Nineties. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America. Newbury Park, CA:

Sage.

 

Hammitt, W. E. (1980). Designing mystery into trail-landscape

experiences. Journal of Interpretation, 5, 16-19.

 

The author found that high visual preference was found for trail

hikers where scenes in photos showed a trail winding out of view,

but only when dense vegetation obscured the receding trail. This

lack of information is termed 'mystery'. [While mystery may prove

pleasing in some safe settings (such as remote Cranberry Glades,

WV, as in this study), it may make people feel unsafe in more

urban settings.]

 

Harries, K. D. (1974). The geography of crime and justice. New

York: McGraw-Hill.

 

Harries, K. D. (1980). Crime and the environment. Springfield, IL:

Charles C. Thomas.

 

"This monograph reviews the environments of criminogenesis from a

broad ecological perspective, emphasizing both human and physical

phenomena. Human environments are examined from both the macro-

and microlevel perspectives...At the micro-, or intraurban, scale

a number of recent studies are examined, their strengths and

weaknesses underlined, and their essential findings

synthesized.(vii)"**

 

Harris, D. W. (1991). A safer city. The second stage report of the

Safe City Committee. Toronto, Ontario: Safe City Committee,

Planning and Development Department.

 

Harris, J. (1979). Lawless behavior: Are park managers part of the

problem? California Park and Recreation Society, 35, 42-43.

 

Harris, J., & Brown, P. (1972). Law enforcement in the forest.

Journal of Forestry, 70, 750-751.

 

Hartnagel, T. F. (1979). The perception and fear of crime:

Implications for neighborhood cohesion, social activity, and

community affect. Social Forces, 58, 176-193.

 

"This research examines the relationship between the perception

and fear of crime on the one hand and neighborhood cohesion,

social activity and affect for the community on the other...The

hypotheses that the perception of increased crime and the fear of

crime would be inversely related to neighborhood cohesion and

social activity were not supported. But as hypothesized, the fear

of crime was negatively related to affect for the community."

 

Harvey, M., & DiGiammerino, D. (1981). Anti-social behavior in

urban parks: A prospectus. Kent, OH: Department of Geography, Kent

State University.

 

Hassinger, J. R. (1983). Attributes of urban environments feared

by handgun carriers. EDRA (Environmental Design Research

Association), 14, 113-117.

 

Hassinger, J. R. (1985). Fear of crime in public environments.

Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2, 289-300.

 

Heal, K., & Laycock, G. (Eds.). (1986). Situational crime

prevention: From theory into practice. London: H.M.S.O.

 

Healy, R. J. (1968). Design for security. New York: John Wiley &

Sons.

 

Heinzelmann, F. (1981). Crime prevention and the physical

environment. In D. Lewis (Ed.), Reactions to Crime (pp. 87-101).

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Hesseling, R. B. P. (1992). Displacement: A review of the

empirical literature. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention

Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 197-230). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

 

Henig, J., & Maxfield, M. G., (1978). Reducing fear of crime:

Strategies for intervention. Victimology, 3, 297-313.

 

Henshel, R., & Carey, S. (1975). Deviance, deterrence and

knowledge of sanctions. In R. Henshel & R. Silverman (Eds.),

Perception in Criminology. New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Herbert, D. (1982). The geography of urban crime. Harlow, UK:

Longman.

 

"This book is the latest in a series called Topics in Applied

Geography. (It) provides the reader with a superficial overview of

the field, some useful examples for teachers; presents detailed

description of spatial patterns, distributions, and correlates and

explores ways in which geographical research can widen its

horizons and hopefully reorder its priorities, especially with

regard to policy formulation."

 

Herbert, D., & Hyde, S. (1984). Residential crime and the urban

environment. A report for the Economic and Social Research

Council.

 

Herbert, D., & Hyde, S. (1985). Environmental criminology: Testing

some area hypotheses. Transactions I.B.G., 10, 259-274.

 

Herzog, T., & Smith, G. A. (1988). Danger, mystery, and

environmental preference. Environment and Behavior, 20, 320-344.

 

Heywood, I., Hall, N., & Redhead, P. (1992). Is there a role for

spatial information systems in formulating multi-agency crime

prevention strategies? In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T.

Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental

criminology (pp. 73-92). New York: Routledge.

 

"This chapter considers...a spatial database and geographic

information system (GIS) approach to the storage, management and

manipulation of crime-related community data."**

 

Hierlihy, D. (1991). Green spaces/safer places: A forum on

planning safer parks for women. (Available from Safe City

Committee, City of Toronto Planning & Development Dept., 18th

Floor, East Tower, City Hall, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2).

 

Hindelang, M. (1974). Public opinion regarding crime, criminal

justice, and related topics. Journal of Research in Crime and

Delinquency, 11, 101-116.

 

Hindelang, M. (1976). Criminal victimizations in eight American

cities: A descriptive analysis of common theft and assault.

Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

 

Hindelang, M., Gottfredson, M., & Garafolo, J. (1978). Victims of

personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal

victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

 

Hope, T. & Shaw, M. (Eds.). (1988). Communities and crime

reduction . London: H.M.S.O.

 

"The purpose of this book, which represents the outcome of a

conference convened by the Home Office Research and Planning Unit

in 1986, is to bring together some current ideas, experience,

practice and policy, from those who have been working on the

problems of how to prevent crime....In so doing, it is hoped to

clarify directions for future policy and practice. The authors,

coming as they do from a number of different countries and

backgrounds, illustrate the current collective concern with crime

prevention (p. 1)."

 

Hough, M. (1987). Offenders' choice of target: Findings from

victim surveys. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 355-367.

 

This paper discusses research on offender decision making and

presents results from the1982 and1984 British Crime Surveys (BCS).

The discussion of previous research is effective, particularly in

pointing out difficulties posed by various methods. The BCS

results presented focus on burglary. With over 11,000 homes

surveyed in the BCS the author's findings bear consideration. He

writes that crime surveys "offer a useful corrective to some of

the distortions in conventional studies of target selectionThe

main points to emerge about burglars' choice of targets are as

follows:

oproximity is a key factor determining choice of target for most

burglars;

oburglars select poor homes no less than those with average

incomes, but affluent homes are more at risk than others;

oaccessibility factors are taken in account-homes frequently left

empty and those with rear access are more vulnerable, for example;

and as many as half of all burglaries end in failure (p. 366)."

 

Hudson, C. (1983). Residential burglary. Home Office Research

Bulletin, 15. London: H.M.S.O.

 

Hull, R. B., & Harvey, A. (1989). Explaining the emotion people

experience in suburban parks. Environment and Behavior, 21,

323-345.

 

"In general, pleasure increases as tree density increases and

understory density decreases...arousal increases with increasing

understory vegetation density...and people prefer parks that are

both pleasant and arousing. Results suggest that considerable

control over affect can be exercised through manipulation of a

park's physical characteristics." The implications of these

findings for safety are reflected in the studies which have

investigated vegetation from the safety standpoint. Those results

of those works converge with those of these authors in that lower

vegetation is perceived negatively and arousal increases with

increased understory. Heightened feelings of awareness from a

perception of lowered safety may account for this study's findings

on increased arousal.

 

Hunter, A., & Baumer, T. (1982). Street traffic, social

integration and fear of crime. Sociological Inquiry, 52, 122-131.

 

Hunter, R. D., & Jeffery, C. R. (1992). Preventing convenience

store robbery through environmental design. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.),

Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York:

Harrow & Heston.

 

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Jackson, B. (1969). A thief's primer. New York: MacMillan.

 

This book delves into the life and definition of so called 'career

criminals'. In a unique format it consists of the recorded and

recompiled comments of such an individual, in this case a thief,

whose trust the author had earned during contact within a

correctional facility. Although dated, the thief's discourses are

detailed and comprehensive.

 

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities.

New York: Random House.

 

Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental

design. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Jeffery, C. R. (1976). Criminal behavior and the physical

environment. The American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 149-174.

 

Three articles in this issue are most noteworthy: Jeffery's

'Criminal behavior and the physical environment: A perspective,'

Dennis C. Duffala's 'Convenience stores, armed robbery, and

physical environmental features,' and Thomas A. Reppetto's 'Crime

prevention through environmental policy: A critique.' *

 

Jeffery, C. R. (1977). Crime prevention through environmental

design. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

 

Environmental crime control adheres to the classical principles of

prevention of crime before it occurs, and certainty of consequence

for behavior, but shifts emphasis from punishment and the

individual offender to reinforcement and the environment.*

 

Jeffery, C. R., Hunter, D., & Griswood, J. (1987). Crime

prevention and computer analyses of convenience store robberies in

Tallahassee, Florida. Paper presented at Florida State University,

Tallahassee, FL.

 

Jeffrey, M. (1968). A burglar's life. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

 

Joyce, D. V. (1976, September). Crime in parks: 8 alternatives

that might work for your park system. Park Maintenance.

 

Jubenville, A., Twight, B. W., & Becker, R. H. (1987). Public

safety. Outdoor Recreation Management: Theory and Application.

State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

 

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Kaiser, R. A., Fletcher, J. A., & Steele, R. J. (1989). Legal,

actual and perceived implications of safety and security problems

at public beaches. Coastal Management, 17 (4).

 

Katzman, M. (1980). The contribution of crime to urban decline.

Urban Studies, 17, 277-286.

 

Keeley, R. M., & Edney, J. J. (1983). Model house designs for

privacy, security, and social interaction. Journal of Social

Psychology, 119, 219-228.

 

This brief paper was purposed to study interaction between the

sexes as "(c)ollege undergraduates were asked to construct models

of houses that would promote privacy, security, or social

interaction for occupants." While interesting for its own sake,

the study likewise touches lightly upon security factors as

perceived by the study population.

 

Kirk, N. L. (1986). Perceptions of safety in the campus

environment. Unpublished paper, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign, Urbana.

 

Kirk, N. L. (1988). Factors affecting perceptions of safety in a

campus environment. EDRA (Environmental Design Research

Association), 19, 215-222.

 

Kirk, N. L. (1988). Factors affecting perceptions of safety in a

campus environment. In J. Sime (Ed.), Safety in the built

environment (pp. 285-296). London: E. & F.N. Spon.

 

Kirk, N. L. (1989). Factors affecting perceptions of social safety

in public open spaces. Unpublished masters thesis, University of

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana.

 

Knopf, R. C., & Dustin, D. L. (1992). A multidisciplinary model

for managing vandalism and depreciative behavior in recreation

settings. In M. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior: Theory

and application in recreation and tourism (pp. 209-261).

Champaign?Urbana, IL: Sagamore Press.

 

Koehler, C. T. (1988). Urban design and crime: A partially

annotated bibliography. Chicago, IL: Council of Planning

Librarians, No. 218.

 

This work consists of 1) a brief Introduction, 2) a section on

General Theory and Applications, and 3) a section on Urban Design

and Crime, yielding a total of twenty-one pages in all. The

majority of works cited pertain to urban planning and

architecture, specifically housing. While many of the pieces

listed in this work may also be found in this bibliography, there

are a great many which are not listed herein.

 

Kornblum, W., & Williams, T. (1983). New Yorkers and Central Park:

A report to the Central Park Conservancy. New York: Sociology

Department, Graduate Center, CUNY.

 

Kowalski, G. S., Dittmann, R. L., Jr., & Bung, W. L. (1980).

Spatial distribution of criminal offenses by States, 1970-1976.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17, 4-25.

 

Kramer, J. J. (Ed.). (1977). The role of behavioral sciences in

physical security. National Bureau of Standards.

 

Kreps, G. M (1977). A study of crime in rural Ohio: The

relationship between ecological factors and a rural crime index

(Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Dissertation

Abstracts International, 39 (5). (University Microfilms No. 77-24,

653)

 

Krupat, E., & Kubzansky, P. E. (1987). Designing to deter crime.

Psychology Today, (Oct.), 58-61.

 

Koppel, H. (1987). Lifetime likelihood of victimization. Technical

Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of

Justice Statistics.

 

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Landles, R. A. (1970). Criminal activity in selected Seattle

parks. Seattle, WA: Department of Parks and Recreation.

 

Latane, B., & Darley, J. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why

doesn't he help? New York: Appleton-Centry-Croft.

Law enforcement: Citizens safety in parks and recreation. (1970,

November). Parks and Recreation.

 

Laycock, G., & Heal, K. (1989). Crime prevention: The British

experience. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of

crime. New York: Routledge.

 

Leach, B,. Lesiuk, E., & Morton, P .E.. (1986). Perceptions of

fear in the urban environment. Women and Environments, Spring,

10-12.

 

LeBeau, J. L. (1987a). Environmental design as a rationale for

prevention. In E. H. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook on crime

 

LeBeau, J. L. (1987b). The journey to rape: Geographic distance

and the rapist's method of approaching the victim. Journal of

Police Science and Administration, 15, 129-161.

 

Lee, R. (1972). The social definition of outdoor recreation

places. In W. Burch (Ed.), Social behavior, natural resources and

the environment. New York: Harper & Row.

 

Lee, Y., & Egan, F. (1972). The geography of urban crime: The

spatial pattern of serious crime in the City of Denver.

Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 4, 59-64.

 

LeJeune, R. (1977). The management of a mugging. Urban Life, 6,

123-148.

 

LeJeune, R., & Alex, N. (1973). On being mugged: The event and its

aftermath. Urban Life and Culture, (October), 259-287.

 

The authors interviewed 24 victims of 'muggings', having them

relive their experiences, their feelings, and any meanings they

attached to the incident. The article was written at a time when

this nation was just beginning to pay attention to this form of

personal attack. Hence, much of what it has to offer is victim

response, rather than empirical data or quantifiable data. This

may be attributable to the sociological background of the

researchers. None-the-less, the reader can expect to find insights

into the process of muggings (including victim response), but more

so into the changed psyche of the victim, who, the authors say,

begins to see the city as "a jungle". Also of considerable

interest is the discussion of victims' feelings of safety in

familiar environments. The authors suggest that "ecological

sentiments may act as blinders" to changes in safety. That is,

they failed to accept or recognize how their environment was

changing over the years, or even over a matter of minutes in the

case of a mugging itself.

 

Lentz, P. Sternhall, R., & Lyle, C. (1977, April). The limits of

lighting: The New Orleans experiment in crime reduction. The

Mayor's Criminal Justice Coordinating Council.

 

Letkemann, P. (1973). Crime as work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice-Hall.

 

Levy?Leboyer, C. (1984). Vandalism: Behavior and motivations. New

York: North Holland Printing.

 

Lewis, D. A. (Ed.). (1981). Reactions to crime. Beverly Hills, CA:

Sage.

 

Lewis, D. A., & Maxfield, M. G. (1980). Fear in the neighborhoods:

An investigation of the impact of crime. Journal of Research in

Crime and Delinquency, 17, 160-189.

 

Lewis, D. A., & Salem, G. (1981). Community crime prevention: An

analysis of a developing strategy. Crime and Delinquency, 27,

405-421.

 

Ley, D., & Cybriwsky, R. (1974). Urban graffiti as territorial

markers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 64,

491-505.

 

Ley, D., & Cybriwsky, R. (1974). The spatial ecology of stripped

cars. Environment and Behavior, 6, 53-67.

 

Light, R., Nee, C., and Ingham, H. (1993). Car theft: The

offender's perspective. Home Office Research Study (No. 130).

London, UK: HMSO.

 

Loewen, L. J., Steel, G. D., & Suedfeld, P. (1993). Perceived

safety from crime in the urban environment. Journal of

Environmental Psychology, 13, 323-331.

 

Logie, R. H., Wright, R., & Decker, S. H. (1992). Recognition

memory performance and residential burglary. Applied Cognitive

Psychology, 6, 109-123.

 

"This paper reports two studies of recognition memory performance

in groups of juvenile residential burglars. Memory performance of

the burglars was compared in Experiment 1 with police officers and

a group of adult householders. In Experiment 2 a second group of

juvenile burglars was compared with a group of juvenile offenders

who had no experience of housebreaking. All groups were asked

first to identify houses in photographs that would be attractive

or otherwise to burglars. Subsequently, subjects were given a

surprise recognition test where, in some photographs, physical

features of houses was significantly better members of the

law-abiding public. In Experiment 2 the juvenile burglars'

recognition memory performance was significantly better than the

other offenders. These results are interpreted in terms of the

burglary subjects possessing a level of expertise associated with

their experience of offending."

 

Lowman, J. (1983). Geography, crime and social control.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia,

Vancouver, BC, Canada.

 

Lowman, J. (1989). The geography of social control: Clarifying

some themes. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of

crime. New York: Routledge.

 

Luedtke, G. & Associates (1970). Crime and the physical city:

Neighborhood design techniques for crime prevention. Springfield,

VA: National Technical Information Service.

 

Lynch, G., & Atkins, S. (1988). The influence of personal security

fears on women's travel patterns. Transportation, 15, 275-277.

 

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MacDonald, J. E., & Gifford, R. (1989). Territorial cues and

defensible space theory: The burglar's point of view. Journal of

Environmental Psychology, 9, 193-205.

 

To test Newman's 'defensible space' theory incarcerated burglars

were interviewed as they rated photos taken of residences on

"vulnerability". "As the theory predicts, easily surveillable

houses were rated as the least vulnerable targets. Contrary to the

theory, evidence of territorial concern had no effect...or

actually increased vulnerability.

 

Macleod, L. (1989). The city for women: No safe place. Ottawa,

Canada: Secretary of State Canada for the European & North

American Conference of Urban Safety & Crime Prevention.

 

Maguire, M. (1980). The impact of burglary upon victims. British

Journal of Criminology, 20, 261-275.

 

Maguire, M., & Bennett, T. (1982). Burglary in a dwelling: The

offense, the offender, and the victim. London: Heinemann.

 

Malt, H. L., & Associates, Inc. (1972). An analysis of public

safety as related to the incidence of crime in parks and

recreation areas in central cities. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Housing and Urban Development. (272 pgs.; NTIS No.

PB220770).

 

This extensive report remains one of the most detailed

examinations of crime in recreation areas to date. Sixteen cities

were studied out of the 49 initially contacted. Three categories

of parks (sub-neighborhood, neighborhood, community) were examined

in each of the cities. City officials and park patrons were

queried, and official statistics were compiled. Among the goals of

the study were determination of: 1) the primary crime problem(s)

facing the parks, 2) which parks were experiencing crime problems,

3) the sources of the problems, and 4) the amounts and types of

crimes occurring. Also examined were attitudes of the public. It

is worth noting that several of the report's general findings

mirror our own findings some twenty-three years later. [Persons

wishing to obtain a copy of the report may be forced to contact

the library at HUD]

 

Maltz, M. D., Gordon, A. C., & Friedman, W. (1990). Mapping crime

in its community setting: Event geography analysis. New York:

Springer-Verlag.

 

Mann, L., & Hageirk, G. (1971, September). The new

environmentalism: Behaviorism and design. Journal of the American

Institute of Planners.

 

Martin, S. (1994, August). Ripped off: In the time it takes you to

read this headline, this man can steal your bike. Bicycling, pp.

41-45.

 

This article, which discusses means for theft of bicycles with

bike thieves, reports briefly on the occurrence of so-called

"bike-jackings" in urban recreation areas.

 

Matthews, R. (1992). Developing more effective strategies for

curbing prostitution. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime

prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

Mawby, R. I. (1977). Defensible space: A theoretical and empirical

appraisal. Urban Studies, 14, 169-179.

 

The author argues that by oversimplifying the nature of crime and

the qualities of defensible space, Newman has failed to consider

the possibilities for contradictions within the key elements of

the theory that might also threaten security.*

 

Mayhew, P. (1979). Defensible space: The current status of a crime

prevention theory. The Howard Journal, 18, 150-159.

 

Mayhew, P. (1984). Target hardening: How much of an answer. In R.

Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with burglary. Boston:

Kluwe-Nijhoff.

 

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R., Burrows, J., Hough, J., & Winchester, S.

(1979). Crime in public view (Home Office Research Study No. 49).

London: H.M.S.O.

 

An excellent short monograph assessing the use of surveillance to

reduce different types of crime. The authors argue that 'casual'

surveillance by the public is generally less effective than

surveillance by residents and employees of an environment.*

 

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R., Sturman, A., & Hough, M. (1976). Crime as

opportunity (Home Office Research Study No. 34). London: H.M.S.O.

 

McCormick, M. (1974). Robbery prevention: What the literature

reveals--A literature review and annotated bibliography with a

list of information sources. La Jolla, CA: Western Behavioral

Sciences Institute.

 

McDonald, A. D., & Newcomer, R. J. (1973). Differences in

perception of a city park as a supportive or threatening

environment. In D. Gray & D. A. Pelegrino (Eds.), Reflections on

the recreation and park movement. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown Co.

 

"This paper reports on a pilot study which was intended to find

out how and in what ways a city park is important, i.e.,

supportive to its elderly users and to determine why other elderly

persons who live in proximity to the park do not use it."

 

McInnes, P., Burgess, G., Hann, R., & Axon, L. (1982). The

environmental design and management (EDM) approach to crime

prevention in residential environments (User Report, No. 1984-84).

Ottawa, Canada: Report for the Research Division of the Department

of the Solicitor General, Programs Branch.

 

McIntyre, J. (1967). Public attitudes toward crime and law

enforcement. Annals, 374, 34-46.

 

McKenzie, J. S., & McKenzie, R. L. (1978). Composing urban spaces

for security, privacy and outlook. Landscape Architecture, Sept.,

392-398.

 

McNamara, J. (1984). Safe and sane: The sensible way to protect

yourself, your loved ones, your property and possessions. New

York: Putnam.

 

McPherson, M. (1978). Realities and perception of crime at the

neighborhood level. Victimology, 3, 319-328.

 

Merry, S. E. (1981). Defensible space undefended: Social factors

in crime control through environmental design. Urban Affairs

Quarterly, 16, 397-422.

 

"The notion that crime can be prevented through environmental

design is a recent and promising idea emerging from the fields of

architecture and urban planning. However, despite intriguing

correlation's between crime rates and features of building design,

we understand little about the social processes which induce

residents to intervene to stop crimes and disorderly behavior in

the spaces around them. This article investigates the conditions

under which residents of an American inner-city housing project

act and fail to act to defend both architecturally defensible and

undefensible spaces. Because of the fragmented social fabric, even

architecturally defensible spaces here are undefended."**

 

Merton Borough. (1994). Designing out crime. Morden, Surrey:

Available from Planning Services Dept., Merton Civic Centre,

London Road, Morden, Surrey SM4 5DX, UK.

 

Michael, S. E., & Hull, R. B. (1994). Effects of vegetation on

crime in urban parks. Interim report for the U.S. Forest Service

and the International Society of Arboriculture.

 

Mieczkowski, T. (1986). Geeking up and throwing down: Heroin

street life in Detroit. Criminology, 24, 645-666.

 

The authors reports an ethnographic study of 15 street-level

heroin dealers done over 3 months. Findings relevant to CPTED

include that since World War II heroin sales have moved

increasingly away from the fixed locations of the "Dope-Pad

System" towards "runners" and "crews" dealing on the street. He

further found that "the runner systemis designed to market heroin

in public places, most typically either at the curbside of public

roads or other open locales such as areas in front of shops and

stores, playgrounds, parks, and schoolyards (p. 648)." "Stations",

or selling positions, were typically on sidewalks or just off of

roadways. Planned escapes were found in crews, as were the need

for "guns" (i.e., armed crew guards) to be able to "observe and

monitor" the surroundings. Further, the surrounding environment

was regularly used for caching a stash of drugs and/or money. This

latter tactic was also uncovered by Michael and Hull (1994).

 

Miller, E. S. (1981). Bryant Park: A comprehensive evaluation of

its image and use with implications for urban open space design.

New York: City University of New York, Center for Human

Environments.

 

Miller, E. S. (1981). Crime threat to land value and neighborhood

vitality. In P.J. Brantingham & P.L. Brantingham (Eds.),

Environmental criminology (pp. 111-119). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Minor, W. (1978). Deterrence research: Problems of theory and

method. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law Society

Association, Minneapolis, MN.

 

Molumby, T. (1976). Patterns of crime in a university housing

project. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 247-259.

 

The author of this early work employs spatial analysis to study

location of crimes. The study lacks a theoretical basis for

conclusions, or hypotheses to test spatial theory. Causes of

patterns in the study may reflect some reading into the findings

as far as causes of patterns are concerned.

 

Molumby, T. (unknown). Evaluation of the effect of physical design

changes on criminal behavior (Doctoral dissertation, St. Ambrose

University).

 

Moore, M. H., & Trojanowikz, R. C. (1988, November). Policing and

the fear of crime. Perspectives on Policing, 3.

 

Moran, R., & Dolphin, C. (1986). The defensible space concept:

Theoretical and operational explication. Environment and Behavior,

18, 396-416.

 

More, T. A. (1985). Central city parks: A behavioral perspective.

Unpublished paper, Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

 

The author "monitored the use of two central city parks--one in

Boston, one in Hartford--around the clock during the summer of

1978, recording the social characteristics and behaviors of the

park users." The result is a unique look into the patterns of use

in two urban parks. Included within the study were figures on

deviant behavior (e.g., selling marijuana), problem behaviors

(e.g., fighting, begging), and other actions which were either

unlawful or indicated possible criminal characteristics. The

findings suggested "that people's use of public parks can be

influenced by the park's landscape." Specific design elements are

discussed with regard to their impact on users (e.g., vegetation,

pathways, edge effects).

 

Moriarty, T. (1975). Crime, commitment and the responsive

bystander: Two field experiments. Journal of Personality and

Social Psychology, 31, 370-376.

 

Muluhill, E., & Tumin, M. (1969). Crimes of violence, 1-3.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Musheno, M. C., Levine, J. P., & Palumbo, D. J. (1977, February).

Is "defensible space" a defensible theory?: An evaluation of

closed-circuit television as a crime prevention strategy.

Presented at the National Conference on Criminal Justice sponsored

by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, Washington, DC.

 

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Nager, A. R., & Wenworth, W. R. (1976). Bryant Park: A

comprehensive evaluation of its image and use with implications

for urban open space design. New York: City University of New

York, Center for Human Environments.

 

Nasar, J.L., & Fisher, B.S. (1992). Design for vulnerability: Cues

and reactions to fear of crime. Sociology and Social Research, 76,

48-58.

 

The authors describe physical environment cues which may affect

the public's fear of crime. In the process they developed a theory

regarding the relationship between these cues, fear, and

consequent reactions. The study examined the physical environment

of university campuses. Cues which heightened fear were: "poor

prospect for the passerby due to inadequate lighting, blocked

escape for the passerby, and concealment for the offender".

Responses to cues and fear were also recorded. The study's results

are consistent with recent findings which suggest that informed

design of micro-level physical settings and their features may be

an effective means for deterring criminals. Consequently, the

authors suggest that it may also be effective at reducing fear. As

this and other studies point out, although fear may not be an

adequate predictor of crime, it has salient negative consequences

which effect people even in the absence of experienced crime.

Article includes photographs and site plans of the study areas.

 

Nasar, J. L., & Fisher, B. S. (1993). "Hot spots" of fear and

crime: A multi-method investigation. Journal of Environmental

Psychology, 13, 187-206.

 

This study takes a different slant on examining the geography of

crime. It differentiates between macro and micro-level site

characteristics, examining how the latter may contribute to

concentrated areas of crime, or 'hot spots'. Although this article

does not offer the first investigation of hot spots, it does

provide the most thorough discussion to date. Prospect,

concealment and boundedness were the proximate cues studied, with

female college students and campus police serving as subjects.

Fear was also examined on the same levels. "Hot spots of fear and

crime converged at the micro level. Both fear and crime increased

in areas characterized by low prospect, high concealment, and high

boundedness." Design measures are discussed regarding micro level

deterrence (e.g., lighting, vegetation maintenance, cameras).

 

Nasar, J. L., Fisher, B. S., & Grannis, M. (1993). Proximate

physical cues to fear of crime. In J. L. Nasar (Ed.), Landscape

and urban planning: Special issue on urban design research, 26,

161-178.

 

Nasar, J. L., Julian, D., Buchman, S., Humphreys, D., & Mrohaly,

M. (1983). The emotional quality of scenes and observation points:

A look at prospect and refuge. Landscape Planning, 10, 355-361.

 

National Crime Prevention Institute. (1986). Understanding crime

prevention. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

 

Nee, C., & Taylor, M. (1988). Residential burglary in the Republic

of Ireland: A situational perspective. The Howard Journal, 27,

105-116.

 

Neiburg, H. (1974). Crime prevention by urban design. Society, 12,

41-47.

 

Newman, O. (1972a). Defensible space: Crime prevention through

urban design. New York: Macmillan.

 

The original publication of this book in 1972 changed the nature

of the crime prevention and environmental design field. The book

details and describes the 'defensible space' theory, and includes

extensive discussion of crime and the physical form of housing

based on crime data analysis from New York City public housing.*

 

Newman, O. (1972b). Defensible space: People and design in the

violent city. London: Architectural Press.

 

Newman, O. (1973a). Architectural design for crime prevention.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Newman, O. (1973b). A design for improving residential security.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Newman, O. (1976). Design guidelines for creating defensible

spaces. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

This handbook examines how different social, physical, managerial,

and economic factors combine to produce secure housing. Other

chapters cover the evolution of multi-family housing, design

guidelines for buildings, site planning guidelines, two

prototypical designs, and discussions regarding security

hardware.*

 

Newman, O., & Frank, K. (1980). Factors influencing crime and

instability in urban housing developments. Washington, DC:

National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S. Government Printing

Office.

 

Newman, O., & Frank, K. (1982). The effects of building size on

personal crime and fear of crime. Population and Environment, 5,

203-220.

 

Normandeau, A. (1968). Trends and patterns in crimes of robbery.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania,

State College.

 

O & P

 

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O'Donnell, C. R., & Lydgate, T. (1980). The relationship to crimes

of physical resources. Environment and Behavior, 12, 207-230.

 

Orsini, D. (1990). Mitigating fear in the landscape:

Recommendations for enhancing users' perceptions of safety in

urban parks. Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Landscape

Architecture, University of Guelph, Canada.

 

Page, R. A., & Moss, M. K. (1976). Environmental influences on

aggression: The effects of darkness and proximity of victim.

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 126-133.

 

This brief paper offers support for the authors' predictions

concerning the relationship between lighting and aggression. In a

somewhat unusual test, subjects' willingness to punish fellow

participants via an electrical shock system (which offered varying

magnitudes of current) was monitored as contact with the 'victim'

was decreased via lighting and physical proximity. Shocks tended

to be more powerful and lasted longer when rooms were more dimly

lit. These findings, if found to be sound, could expand the

theoretical support to the age old belief that lit areas are

safer.

 

Painter, K. (1992). Different worlds: The spatial, temporal and

social dimensions of female victimization. In D. J. Evans, N. R.

Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays

in environmental criminology (pp. 164-195). New York: Routledge.

 

Painter, K. (1994). Street lighting as an environmental crime

prevention strategy. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell (Eds.), Proceedings of

the International Seminar on Environmental Criminology and Crime

Analysis (pp. 95-110). Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical

Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

 

Paternoster, R., Saltzman, L., Chiricos, T., & Waldo, G. (1982).

Perceived risk and deterrence: Methodological artifacts in

perceptual deterrence research. Journal of Criminal Law and

Criminology, 73, 1238-1258.

 

Patterson, A. H. (1975). Crowding, crime, and the designed

environment: A social control perspective. Paper presented at the

American Psychological Association Meeting.

 

Patterson, A. H. (1976). Housing type, territorial behavior, and

fear of crime in the elderly. In D. Conway (Ed.), Designing for

the elderly. Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects.

 

Patterson, A. H. (1977). Territorial behavior and fear of crime in

the elderly. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

 

Patterson, A. H. (1978). Crime and fear among the elderly: The

role of the physical environment. Crime Prevention Through

Environmental Design Compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse

National Issues Center.

 

Patterson, A. H. (1978). Territorial behavior and fear of crime in

the elderly. Environmental Behaviour and Non-verbal Behaviour, 2,

131-144.

 

Payne, J., Braunstein, M., & Carroll, J. (1978). Exploring

predecisional behavior: An alternative approach to decision

research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22,

17-44.

 

Pease, K. (1992). Preventing burglary on a British public housing

estate. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention:

Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

Pierson, S. P. (1996). Design decisions for bicycle parking and

security that works. Landscape Architect & Specifier News, 12,

28-29.

 

Perkins, D. D., Meeks, J. W., & Taylor, R. B. (1992). The physical

environment of street blocks and resident perceptions of crime and

disorder: Implications of theory and measurement. Journal of

Environmental Psychology, 12, 21-34.

 

With data based on over 400 subject interviews, the authors

developed and tested both a procedure and an instrument to assess

"crime- and fear-related features" of the urban residential

settings. Various cues were examined (i.e., symbols of social and

physical disorder, territorial functioning, and architectural

'defensible space' features) while, theoretically, the 'disorder'

thesis, which suggests that residents' confidence in their

neighborhood will be negatively impacted by physical incivilities,

was tested, with support being found for it. Their findings are in

agreement with many others. The authors point out that an

important next step is to isolate "exactly what aspects of the

environment most affect resident perceptions and what the nature

of those perceptions are."

 

Perkins, D. D., Wandersman, A., Rich, R. C., & Taylor, R. B.

(1993). The physical environment of street crime: Defensible

space, territoriality and incivilities. Journal of Environmental

Psychology, 13, 29-49.

 

Perlgut, D. (1983). Vandalism: The environmental crime. Australian

Journal of Social Issues, 18, 209-216.

 

Because it is committed against physical objects and because

physical design and setting play an important role, vandalism is

the ultimate 'environmental' crime. Often misunderstood by

designers, planners, facility managers, and administrators,

vandalism can be more effectively controlled through an

understanding of the patterns and environmental context in which

it occurs. Social situations conducive to vandalism are discussed,

e.g., unstable neighborhoods, insensitive school administrators

and teachers, and workplaces with rapid staff turnover. S. Cohen's

typology of vandalism and methods for preventing or controlling it

('Campaigning against vandalism.' In Vandalism, edited by C. Ward.

London: Architectural Press, 1973) are described.*

 

Perry, K. (1984). Measuring the effectiveness of neighborhood

crime watch. Law and Order, 32, 37-40.

 

Perry, M. J. (1983, September). Strategies for combating crime in

the parks. Parks and Recreation.

 

Pesce, E. J., Kohn, I. R., & Kaplan, H. M. (1978, July). Crime

prevention through environmental design: Final report, phases II

and III, July 1976-1978. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National

Issues Center.

 

Peterson, M., Braiker, H., & Polich, S. (1981). Who commits

crimes: A survey of prison inmates. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager,

Gunn and Hain.

 

Pettiway, L. E. (1982). Mobility of robbery and burglary

offenders: Ghetto and nonghetto spaces. Urban Affairs Quarterly,

18, 255-270.

 

Pettiway, L. E., Dolinsky, S., & Grigoryan, A. (1994). The drug

and criminal activity patterns of urban offenders: A Markov chain

analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 79-107.

 

Phelan, G. F. (1977, November). Testing 'academic' notions of

architectural design for burglary prevention: How burglars

perceive cures of vulnerability in suburban complexes. Paper

presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of

Criminology, Atlanta, GA.

 

Phillips, G. H., Kreps, G. M., & Moody, C. W. (1976, November).

Environmental factors in rural crime (Research Rep. No. 224).

Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

 

Plaster, S., & Carter, S. (1993). Planning for prevention:

Sarasota, Florida's approach to crime prevention through

environmental design. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Criminal Justice

Executive Institute, Florida Department of Law Enforcement.

 

Podolefsky, A. (1983). Case studies in community crime prevention.

Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

 

Podolefsky, A., & Dubow, F. (1983). Strategies for community crime

prevention: Collective responses to crime in urban America.

Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

 

Pollack, L., & Patterson, A. (1979). Territorial behavior and fear

of crime among the elderly and non-elderly. Journal of Social

Psychology (volume unknown).

 

Pope, C. (1977). Crime-specific analysis: The characteristics of

burglary incident. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Pope, C. (1977). Crime-specific analysis: An empirical examination

of burglary offender characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Justice.

 

Poveda, T. (1972). The fear of crime in a small town. Crime and

Delinquency, 18, 147-153.

 

Poyner, B. (1981). Crime prevention and the environment. Police

Research Bulletin, 37, 10-18.

 

Poyner, B. (1983). Design against crime: Beyond defensible space.

Stoneham, MA: Butterworths Publishing Co.

 

Poyner, B. (1992). Situational crime prevention in two parking

facilities. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention:

Successful case studies (pp. 99-107). New York: Harrow & Heston.

 

This study chronicles the introduction of crime deterrence

measures in two parking areas. Recognizing that theft of autos and

thefts from autos require different preventative measures, the

author examined changes in each type of crime. The author suggests

that adequate surveillance, either formal or informal, is the most

important measure which can be taken in attempting to reduce

offenses. Design solutions are offered for proactive and reactive

attempts to secure parking areas, including parking structures.

 

Ptersilia, J., Greenwood, P., & Lavin, M. (1977). Criminal careers

of habitual felons. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

 

Pyle, G. F. (1974). The spatial dynamics of crime (Paper No. 159).

Chicago: University of Chicago Research, Department of Geography.

Pyle, G. F. (1976). The spatial and temporal aspects of crime in

Cleveland, Ohio. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 175-198.

 

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Rainwater, L. (1966). Fear and the house-as-haven in lower class.

Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 32, 23-31.

 

Rainwater, L. (1967). The lessons of Pruitt-Igoe. The Public

Interest, 8, 175-198.

 

Ramsey, M. (1982). City-centre crime: The scope for situational

prevention (Paper 10). London: Home Office, Research and Planning

Unit.

 

Ramsey, M. (1991). The effect of better street lighting on crime

and fear: A review (Paper 29). London: Home Office, Crime

Prevention Unit.

 

Rand, G. (1984). Crime and environment: A review of the literature

and its implications for urban architecture and planning. Journal

of Architecture and Planning Research, 1, 3-19.

 

Ray, J. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental design.

Hollywood, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Reiss, A. J. (1971). Place of residence of arrested persons

compared with the place where the offense charged in arrest. A

report to President's Commission on Law Enforcement and

Administration of Justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Government

Printing Office.

 

Reiss, A. J. (1978). Environmental determinants of victimization

by crime and its control: Offenders and victims. Crime Prevention

Through Environmental Design Compendium. Arlington, VA:

Westinghouse National Issues Center.

 

Reiss, A. J. (1983). Crime control and the quality of life.

American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 43-58.

 

(The) author investigates the association of social and

environmental variables and criminal activity by comparing

geographical areas of a country or communities and neighborhoods

within a city. He approaches the subject in terms of considering

the quality of life in communities undergoing change. Identifies a

number of critical criminogenic factors: (1) location of offenders

relative to their victims, (2) attractiveness of communities to

offenders, (3) offender awareness of criminal opportunities, (4)

offender case of entry and egress of communities to be victimized,

(5) mixed land use, (6) the location of certain legal and illegal

businesses.*

 

Reiss, A. J., & Tonry, M. (Eds.). (1986). Communities and Crime.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1975). Some effects of being female on criminal

spatial behavior. The Pennsylvania Geographer, 13, 10-18.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1975). The journey of crime: An empirical analysis

of spatially constrained female mobility. Paper presented at the

1975 annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers at

Milwaukee. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1980). Spatial aspects of criminal behavior. In D.

Georges-Abeyie & K. Harris (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective

(pp. 47-57). New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1987). The location of public facilities and

crime. Unpublished paper presented to Academy of Criminal Justice

Sciences, St. Louis, MO.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1989). Behavioral geography and criminal behavior.

In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime. New York:

Routledge.

 

Rengert, G. F. (1992). The journey to crime: Conceptual

foundations and policy implications. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe

and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in

environmental criminology (pp. 109-117). New York: Routledge.

 

Rengert, G. F., & Bost, R. (1987). The spillover of crime from a

housing project. Unpublished paper presented to Academy of

Criminal Justice Sciences, St. Louis, MO.

 

Rengert, G. F., & Wasilchick, J. (1980). Residential burglary: The

awareness and use of extended space. Paper presented at the

American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

 

Rengert, G. F., & Wasilchick, J. (1985). Suburban burglary: A time

and a place for everything. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

 

Rengert, G. F., & Wasilchick, J. (1989). Space, time and crime:

Ethnographic insights into residential burglary. Final report

submitted to the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice

Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Reppetto, T. A. (1974). Residential crime. Cambridge, MA:

Ballinger.

 

Reppetto, T. A. (1976a). Crime prevention and the displacement

phenomenon. Crime and Delinquency, 22, 166-177.

 

Reppetto, T. A. (1976b). Crime prevention through environmental

policy. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 275-288.

 

Reppetto, T. A. (1977). Report on offender interviews in Hartford.

New York, NY: John Jay College of Criminal Justice..

 

Rhodes, W., Conly, C., & Schachter, C. (1980). The criminal

commute: A study of the geography of crime and justice in the

District of Columbia. Washington, DC: Institute for Law and Social

Research.

 

Riger, S. (1985). Crime as an environmental stressor. Journal of

Community Psychology, 13, 270-280.

 

Riger, S., Gordon, M. T., & LeBailly, R. K. (1982). Coping with

crime: Women's use of precautionary behaviors. American Journal of

Community Psychology, 10, 369-386.

 

This study included 299 women from metropolitan cities around the

United States. The authors identified a pair of precautionary

actions used by women: "avoiding dangerous situations and managing

risks in the face of possible danger." Fear, perceived physical

competence, race and education were found to be strong predictors

of avoidance. Proximal physical cues which indicate danger or

decay (e.g., vandalism) were found to prompt risk-management more

so than do general crime rates. This ties in with

micro-environment findings and 'hot spot' research which suggest

that individuals react to a given situation rather than to

regional or community crime patterns.

 

Riger, S., & Lavrakas, P. (1981). Community ties: Patterns of

attachment and social interaction in urban neighborhoods. American

Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 55-66.

 

Riger, S., LeBailly, R. K., & Gordon, M. T. (1981). Community ties

and urbanites fear of crime: An ecological investigation. American

Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 653-665.

 

Riley, D. (1987). Time and crime: The link between teenager

lifestyle and delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3,

339-354.

 

Rohe, W., & Burby, R. (1988). Fear of crime in the public housing.

Environment and Behavior, 20, 700-720.

 

Rohe, W., & Burby, R. (1989). Deconcentration of public housing:

Effects on residents' satisfaction with living environment and

their fear of crime. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 24, 700-720.

 

Roncek, D., & Maier, P. (1991). Bars, blocks, and crimes

revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the

empiricism of 'hot spots'. Criminology, 29, 725-753.

 

Roper, L. W. (1973). FLO: A biography of Frederick Law Olmsted.

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

 

Rosenbaum, D. P. (1987). The theory and research behind

neighborhood watch: Is it a sound fear of crime reduction

strategy? Crime and Delinquency, 33, 103-133.

 

Rosenbaum, D. P., Lewis, D., & Grant, J. (1986).

Neighborhood-based crime prevention: Assessing the efficacy of

community organizing in Chicago. In D. Rosenbaum (Ed.), Community

crime prevention: Does it work?. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Publications.

 

Rubenstein, H., Murray, C., Motoyama, T., Rouse, W.V., & Titus,

R.M. (1980). The link between crime and the built environment: The

current state of knowledge. Washington, DC: National Institute of

Justice, LEAA, U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

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Sacco, V., & Silverman, R. (1981). Selling crime prevention: The

evaluation of a mass media campaign. Canadian Journal of

Criminology, 23, 191-202.

 

Sampson, R. J. (1985). Neighborhood and crime: The structural

determinants of personal victimization. Journal of Research in

Crime and Delinquency, 22, 7-40.

 

Sampson, R. J. (1995). The Community. In J.Q. Wilson & J.

Petersilia (Eds.), Crime. (pp. 193-216). San Francisco, CA:

Institute for Contemporary Studies.

 

Sampson, R. J., & Wooldridge, J. D. (1986). Evidence that high

crime rates encourage migration away from central cities.

Sociology and Social Research, 70, 310-314.

 

Sampson, R. J., & Wooldridge, J. D. (1987). Linking the micro- and

macro-level dimensions of lifestyle-Routine activity and

opportunity models of predatory victimization. Journal of

Quantitative Criminology, 3, 371--393.

 

Sarkissian, W. (1984). Design guidelines to reduce security and

vandalism problems in medium-density housing in Australia. Report

of a research project funded by the Criminology Research Council,

Canberra, Australia, and supported by the New South Wales Housing

Commission, Sidney, Australia.

 

Savitz, L., Lalli, M., & Rosen, L. (1977). City life and

delinquency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Scarr, H. A. (1973). Patterns of burglary. (National Institute of

Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice). Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

 

Schepple, K. L., & Bart, P. B. (1983). Through women's eyes:

Defining danger in the wake of sexual assault. Journal of Social

Issues, 39, 63-81.

 

Scherdin, M. J. (1992). The halo effect: psychological deterrence

of electronic security systems. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational

crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow &

Heston.

 

Schneider, A. (1986). Neighborhood-based antiburglary strategies:

An analysis of public and private benefits from the Portland

program. In D. Rosenbaum (Ed.), Community crime prevention: Does

it work?. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Schroeder, H. W. (1982). Preferred features of urban parks and

forests. Journal of Arboriculture, 8, 317-322.

 

Schroeder, H. W. (1986). Psychological value of urban trees:

Measurement, meaning, and imagination. Proceedings of the Third

National Urban Forestry Conference (pp. 55-60). Washington, DC:

American Forestry Association.

 

Schroeder, H. W., & Green, T. L. (1985). Public preference for

tree density in municipal parks. Journal of Arboriculture, 11,

272-277.

 

Schroeder, H. W., & Anderson, L. M. (1984). Perception of personal

safety in urban recreation sites. Journal of Leisure Research, 16,

177-194.

 

This piece broke new ground as it exploring the following three

objectives: "1) to determine whether judgments of personal safety

in urban recreation sites show sufficient reliability to be

usefully studied, 2) to use such judgments to identify park design

features affecting perception of security in urban parks, and 3)

to identify the relations between visibility, perceived security,

and perceived attractiveness of urban parks." Findings showed

"...high security is associated with open areas with long view

distances and with signs of development and nearby populated

areas. On the other hand, high scenic quality depends on the

presence of natural vegetation....and is lowered by manmade

features." Unfortunately, little similar research has been done

thus far to further explore these important findings.

 

Sessions, W. (1989). Crime in the United States-1988. Washington,

DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Shaffer, G. S., & Anderson, L. M. (1983). Perceptions of the

security and attractiveness of urban parking lots. Journal of

Environmental Psychology, 5, 311-323.

 

This study is, apparently, very unique insofar as the physical

feature it investigates. Parking areas, although central to the

public's daily routines and frequently the scenes of personal

assaults, receive little attention. A large group of subjects

(college students) rated photographs of parking areas for

attractiveness and security. Findings were similar to those of

Schroeder and Anderson (1984) in that increased amounts of

vegetation resulted in reduced ratings of perceived safety,

although attractiveness ratings, given orderliness and proper

upkeep, were generally higher. This suggests that, short of

removing or severely pruning vegetation, consistent, quality

upkeep of plants following a planting plan which suggests order

may counter the potentially negative impacts of vegetation, while

also improving aesthetic appeal.

 

Shanks, B. (1976, August). Guns in the parks. The Progressive,

21-23.

 

Shattuck, B. (1987). Vandalism in public parks: A guide for park

managers. Columbus, OH: Publishing Horizons.

 

Sherman, L. W., Gartin, P. R., & Buerger, M. E. (1989). Hot spots

of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of

place. Criminology, 27, 27-55.

 

This study finds support for the ecological theory that when

offenders, targets and a lack of guardians converge a criminal

event results. Over 300,000 calls to police in Minneapolis were

compared with addresses to which responses were made. It was found

that some 50% of the calls came from only 3% of the places. These

locations, termed 'hot spots', have been dealt with in a variety

of manners, some of which the authors discuss. They suggest that,

although eradication of crime settings (e.g., crack houses) and of

routine activities of criminals (e.g., bars) will not remove

crime, regulating the "routine activities of places may be

regulated far more easily than the routine activities of persons."

 

Shover, N. (1971). Burglary as an occupation. Unpublished doctoral

dissertation, University of Illinois, Champagne-Urbana, IL.

 

Shotland, R., & Goodstein, L. I. (1984). The role of bystanders in

crime control. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 9-26.

 

Shotland, R., Haywood, S., Young, C., Signorella, M., Mindingall,

K., Kennedy, J., Rovine, M., & Danowitz, E. (1979). Fear of crime

in residential communities. Criminology, 17, 34-45.

 

Shore, D. (1994, July). Bad lands. Outside, pp. 56-71.

 

Shover, N. (1973). The social organization of burglary. Social

Problems, 20, 499-515.

 

Siegel, D. G., & Raymond, C. H. (1992). An ecological approach to

violent crime on campus. Journal of Security Administration, 15,

19-29.

 

Silberman, M. (1976). Towards a theory of criminal deterrence.

American Sociological Review, 41, 4422-461.

 

Sime, S. (Ed.). (1988). Safety in the built environment. London:

E. & F.N. Spon.

 

Skogan, W. G. (1977). Public policy and the fear of crime in large

American cities. In J. Gardiner (Ed.), Public Law and Public

Policy.

New York: Praeger.

 

Skogan, W. G. (1986). Fear of crime and neighborhood change. In A.

J. Reiss & M. Tonry (Eds.), Communities and crime (pp. 203-229).

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Skogan, W. G. (1988). Disorder, crime and community decline. In T.

Hope & M. Shaw (Eds.), Communities and crime reduction (pp.

48-61). London: H.M.S.O.

 

Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. G. (1981). Coping with crime:

Neighborhood and individual reactions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Publications.

 

Slater, P. (1980). Park after dark: NRPA looks at two ways to view

a park. Dateline: NRPA. Alexandria, VA: National Recreation and

Park Association.

 

Slovic, P., Fischoff, B., & Lichtenstein, S. (1982). Facts versus

fears: Understanding perceived risk. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic &

A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under certainty: Heuristics and

biases. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

 

Slovic, P., & Lichtenstein, S. (1968). Relative importance of

probabilities and payoffs in risk taking. Journal of Experimental

Psychology Monographs, 78.

 

Smith, M. C. (1988). Coping with crime on campus. American Council

on Education, MacMillan Series on Higher Education. New York:

ACE/MacMillan.

 

Smith, M. S. (1989). Security and safety. In A. Chrest, M. Smith &

S. Bhuyan (Eds.), In parking structures: Planning, design,

construction, maintenance, and repair. New York: Van Nostrand

Reinhold.

 

Smith, S. (1986). Crime, space, and society. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

 

Smith, S. (1989). Social relations, neighborhood structure, and

the fear of crime in Britain. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The

geography of crime. New York: Routledge.

 

Smith, T. (1976). Inverse distance variations for the flow of

crime in urban areas. Social Forces, 54, 804-815.

 

Society for American Archeology. (1990). Save the past for the

future: Actions for the '90s. Final report, Taos Working

Conference on Looting and Vandalism. Washington, DC: SAA Office of

Government Relations.

 

Sommer, R. (1987). Crime and vandalism in university residence

halls: A confirmation of defensible space theory. Journal of

Environmental Psychology, 7, 1-12.

 

Southampton City Council. (1987). Safety of women in public

places: Results of the survey. Southampton, England: Directorate

of Planning and Development, Southampton City Council.

 

Standing Conference on Crime Prevention. (1986). Report of the

Working Group on Residential Burglary. London: H.M.S.O.

 

Steele, R. J. (1986). A method of assessing users' vs. managers'

perceptions of safety and security problems in public beach park

settings. Unpublished master's thesis, Texas A&M University,

College Station.

 

Stevens, D. J. (1994). Predatory rapists and victim selection

techniques. The Social Science Journal, 31, 421-433.

 

Stewart, J., & McKenzie, R. L. (1978). Composing urban spaces for

security, privacy and outlook. Landscape Architecture, 78,

392-398.

 

"This article examines the self-reported target techniques of 61

sexual offenders incarcerated in a maximum custody prison.

Respondents were interviewed using a methodology employing other

convicted felons as interviewers. The data lend support for a

rational choice perspective revealing predatory rapists as

decision makers since they largely attack females whom they

perceive as vulnerable."** Although the article does not deal

specifically with influence of the physical environment, quotes

from rapists do describe the use of settings. The author discusses

the use of manipulation as opposed to circumstance in rapes

occurring in opportune situations. The split between the two was

almost 50/50, and the interpretation is that vulnerability,

whether signaled by victim behavior or by physical isolation, is

of paramount importance to rapists.

 

Stoks, F. G. (1982). Assessing urban public space environments for

danger of violent crime-especially rape. (Doctoral dissertation,

University of Washington, Seattle, 1982). Ann Arbor, MI:

University Microfilms.

 

"This dissertation is an investigation of how physical design

characteristics affect microspatial patterns of violent crime,

especially rape in urban public places. A review of crime specific

literature, spatial literature on crime and crime prevention

literature finds that over a third of all violent crime occurs in

urban public places, but little is known about the precise

location or characteristics of the crime sites, or of conclusive

effects of the physical environment on crime prevention.

Police incident reports were used to obtain data on 40 variables

for 590 cases of rape occurring in Seattle during 1981. Data

analysis of 20 variables provided evidence of external validity of

the Seattle sample when compared with the results of several other

studies. The remaining variables describe the spatial distribution

of rape in Seattle. The sites of 65 of these cases, that occurred

in urban public places, were inventoried using a checklist of 42

environmental variables derived in part from crime prevention

literature and from an earlier pilot study. A series of linear

discriminant analyses of this data showed that a set of six

environmental variables affecting the offender's control over the

victim, had statistical significance in discriminating between the

sites of attempted and completed rape. These variables and their

associated weights, in linear equation form, comprise a model for

predicting precisely where rapes are likely to occur in urban

public places. This model is refined to facilitate calculating the

probability that a completed rape will occur for a given urban

public place. Five applications of the model to urban public

places in which rapes had occurred, led to successful prediction

of the precise location of four of the actual rape sites - an

outcome shown to be highly unlikely the result of chance alone.

Applications of the findings and of the model for urban planning

and urban design, are discussed in terms of how to make existing

environments safer, or to design new environments to be safe. The

appendices contain detailed frequency tables on all 82 of the

variables surveyed."**

 

Stoks, F. G. (1982). Assessing urban public space environments for

danger of violent crime-especially rape. In D. Joiner, G.

Brimikombe, J. Daish, J. Gray & D. Kernohan (Eds.), Proceedings of

the Conference on People and Physical Environment Research (pp.

331-342). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Ministry of Works

and Development.

 

Storey, K. (1991, July). The safety of public open spaces: Three

arguments for design. Landscape Architectural Review, 13-15.

 

Struder, R. G. (1978). Behavior technology and the modification of

criminal behavior through environmental design and management.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Theory Compendium.

Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

 

Sutherland, E. (1937). The professional thief. Chicago: University

of Chicago Press.

 

Sutherland, E., & Cressey, D. (1970). Criminology-8th Edition.

Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

 

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Talbot, J. F., & Kaplan, R. (1984). Needs and fears: The response

to trees and nature in the inner city. Journal of Arboriculture,

10, 222-228.

 

Taylor, M., & Nee, C. (1988). The role of cues in simulated

residential burglary: A preliminary investigation. British Journal

of Criminology, 28, 396-401.

 

This study in the Republic of Ireland compared perceptions of

burglars and householders using "free responding" to a simulated

residential setting (using slides and map), effectively allowing

subjects to "move through the simulated environment". Introduced

is the concept of "vulnerability". Significant differences were

found between the two subject groups, particularly with respect to

intra-group response homogeneity, awareness of vulnerabilities,

and 'route' of exploration taken, the burglars moving in a more

systematic manner.

 

Taylor, R. B. (1982). The neighborhood physical environment and

stress. In G. W. Evans (Ed.), Environmental Stress. New York:

Cambridge University Press.

 

Taylor, R. B. (1989). Towards an environmental psychology of

disorder: Delinquency, crime, and fear of crime. In D. Stokols &

I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 2).

New York: John Wiley.

 

Taylor, R. B., & Gottfredson, S. (1986). Environmental design,

crime and prevention: An examination of community dynamics. In L.

Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 8.

New York: Academic Press.

 

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1980). The

defensibility of defensible space: A critical review. In T.

Hirschi & M. Gottfredson (Eds.), Understanding crime. Beverly

Hills, CA: Sage.

 

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1981).

Territorial cognitions and social climate in urban neighborhoods.

Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, 289-303.

 

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1984). Block

crime and fear: Defensible space, local social ties, and

territorial functioning. Journal of Research in Crime and

Delinquency, 21, 303-331.

 

This study utilized a model that included the factors mentioned in

its title to investigate why some blocks have more incidents of

crime, or higher fear levels, than do other blocks."(Their) model

explained significant portions of crimes of violence to persons

(18%) and block fear (37%)....(and)...variation in

individual-level fear."

 

Taylor, R. B., Shumaker, S. A., & Gottfredson, S. (1985).

Neighborhood-level links between physical features and local

sentiments: Deterioration, fear of crime, and confidence. Journal

of Architecture and Planning Research, 2, 261-275.

 

This study attempts "...to understand some of the roles that the

physical environment may play at the neighborhood level...The

results disconfirm some broad-gauged theories about

neighborhood-level physical impacts that have been proposed."

 

Taylor, R. B., & Stough, R. (1978). Territorial cognition:

Assessing Altman's typology. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 36, 418-423.

 

Territo, L. (1988). Hospital and college security liability.

Columbia, MD: Hanrow Press.

 

Thomas, C., & Hyman, J. (1977). Perceptions of crime, fear of

victimization, and public perceptions of police performance.

Journal of Police Science and Administration, 5, 305-317.

 

Tiffany, W. D., & Ketchel, J. M. (1979). Psychological deterrence

in robberies of banks and its application to other institutions.

In J. J. Kramer (Ed.), The role of behavioral sciences in physical

security. National Bureau of Standards.

 

Titus, R. (1982). Citizen and environmental crime prevention.

Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S.

Government Printing Office.

 

Titus, R. (1984). Residential burglary and the community response.

In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with burglary. Boston:

Kluwer-Nijhoff.

 

Tonry, N., & Morris, M. (Eds.). (1980). Crime and justice: An

annual review of research, 2. Chicago: University of Chicago.

 

Tonry, N., & Morris, M. (Eds.). (1983). Crime and justice: An

annual review of research, 5. Chicago: University of Chicago.

 

Tonry, N., & Morris, M. (Eds.). (1986). Crime and justice: An

annual review of research, 7. Chicago: University of Chicago.

 

Toronto, City of. (1988, Sept.). Safe city: Municipal strategies

for preventing public violence against women. (Available from

Policy & Strategic Planning Division, City of Toronto, Planning &

Development Dept., 18th Floor, East Tower, City Hall, Toronto,

Ontario M5H 2N2).

 

Toronto, City of. (1990, Oct.). City plan 1991: Planing for a

safer city. (Available from Safe City Committee, City of Toronto

Planning & Development Dept., 18th Floor, East Tower, City Hall,

Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2).

 

Trust for Public Land. (1994). Healing America's cities: How urban

parks can make cities safe and healthy. San Francisco, CA: The

Trust for Public Land.

 

Tuan, Y. F. (1979). Landscapes of fear. New York: Pantheon Books.

 

U

 

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U.S. Army. (1987). Individual protective measures against

terrorism (Field Circular 100-37-2). Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army

Command and General Staff College.

 

U.S. Department of Justice. (1994). Criminal victimization in the

United States, 1992: A national crime victimization survey report

(NCJ-1451125). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

 

U.S. National Park Service. (1978). National urban recreation

study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

U.S. Park Police. (1976). The United States Park Police - 1975

(1976-O-205-627). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Underwood, G. (1984). The security of buildings. Stoneham, MA:

Architectural Press.

 

Valentine, G. (1991). London's streets of fear. In A. Thomley

(Ed.), London in crisis (pp. 90-103). London: Routledge.

 

Valentine, G. (1990). Women's fear and the design of public space.

Built Environment, 16, 288-303.

 

Van Der Voordt, D. J. M. (1988). Spatial analysis of crime and

anxiety-Research data from the Netherlands and implications for

design. In J. Sime (Ed.), Safety in the built environment

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Van Der Wurff, A., & Stringer, P. (1988). Locations of fear:

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& F.N. Spon.

 

Van Vliet, W. (1983). Exploring the fourth environment: An

examination of the home range of city and suburban teenagers.

Environment and Behavior, 15, 567-588.

 

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A review of program findings. Journal of Contemporary Criminal

Justice, 2, 11-14.

 

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Walker, J. (1981). Physical planning and crime in Canberra.

Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.

 

Waller, I. (1979). What reduces residential burglary: Action and

research in Seattle and Toronto. Paper presented at the Third

International Symposium on Victimology, Muenster, West Germany.

 

Waller, I., & Okihiro, N. (1978). Burglary: The victim and the

public. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

 

Wallis, A., & Ford, D. (Eds.). (1980a). Crime prevention through

environmental design: An operational handbook. Washington, DC:

U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

 

This handbook is an operational presentation of crime prevention

through environmental design. (It) discusses methods of designing

or redesigning buildings and neighborhoods to reduce crime and the

fear of crime.*

 

Wallis, A., & Ford, D. (Eds.). (1980b). Crime prevention through

environmental design: The commercial demonstration in Portland,

OR. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of

Justice.

 

Describes an attempt to reduce crime and fear in a particular

setting (Portland, OR) by reducing criminal opportunity while

simultaneously fostering positive social interaction.* This report

is lengthy and was not conclusive in its support of the theory in

question. Rather, it recommended further testing.

 

Walsh, D. (1980). Break-ins: Burglary from private houses. London:

Constable.

 

Walsh, D. (1986). Victim selection procedures among economic

criminals: The rational choice perspective. In D. Cornish & R. V.

Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal (pp. 38-56). New York:

Springer-Verlag.

 

Ward, C. (Ed.). (1973). Vandalism. London: Architectural Press.

 

This book is intended for 'all those who earn a living by

modifying and maintaining the environment.' The book is more than

just a design guide for architects, planners, managers, and

engineers; its collected articles constitute one of the best

surveys of the physical, social, criminological, and political

aspects of vandalism. Contributions are organized in four parts:

the 'social background', the 'designer's responsibility', 'vandals

with power', and 'coping with vandalism.' *

 

Warr, M. (1980). The accuracy of public beliefs about crime.

Social Forces, 59, 456-470.

 

Warr, M. (1982). The accuracy of public beliefs about crime:

Further evidence. Criminology, 20, 185-204.

 

Warr, M. (1984). Fear of victimization: Why are women and the

elderly more afraid? Social Science Quarterly, 65, 681-702.

 

Warr, M. (1985). Fear of rape among urban women. Social Problems,

32, 238-250.

 

Warr, M. (1988). Rape, burglary, and opportunity. Journal of

Quantitative Criminology, 4, 275--288.

 

Warr, M. (1990). Dangerous situations: Social context and fear of

victimization. Social Forces, 68, 891-907.

 

The author investigates how people perceive cues and signs which

alert them to danger. Night, or darkness, novelty of the

situation, and being alone (vs others who might offer assistance

being present) were examined. They were found not to be

frightening because of what they are, but because of what they

represent. Thus, "they are signs of frightening things".

Interestingly, presence of others can have distinctly different

effects. The author found that depending upon who the 'others'

are, their presence can have a reassuring or an alarming affect.

This work warrants further investigation by those interested in

the perceptions and reactions of the public, particularly women.

 

Washnis, G. (1977). Citizen involvement in crime prevention.

Lexington, KY: Lexington Books.

 

Weaver, F., & Carroll, J. (1985). Crime perceptions in natural

setting by expert and novice shoplifters. Social Psychology

Quarterly, 48, 349-359.

 

This article, despite its title, does not involve nature in the

sense of the out-of-doors, but rather settings natural to

shoplifters (e.g., retail stores). The authors conducted walking

interviews with 17 expert and 17 novice shoplifters. As they

walked through the establishments the offenders thought aloud,

explaining their analysis and strategy development as they went.

The study found that expert shoplifters "were deterred by

strategic difficulties, e.g., size of the item. The experts,

unlike the novices, viewed store personnel and security devices

(intentional deterrents) as overcomeable obstacles. The latter

group decided to abort shoplifting in the face of such deterrents.

These findings are important in their correlation with studies

such as those on burglary which compare perceptions of burglars of

varying degrees of experience. The reader is lead to conclude that

deterrents of differing kind and degree affect the range of

offenders in differing manners. Thus a layering of defenses or

deterrents is necessary to have the greatest success.

 

Webster, W. (1986). Crime in the United States-1985. Washington,

DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Weidemann, S., Anderson, J., O'Donnell, P., & Butterfield, D.

(1981). Resident safety: Research and recommendations for Longview

Place Anti-crime Program. Urbana: University of Illinois at

Champagne-Urbana, Housing Research and Development Program.

 

Weidemann, S., Anderson, J., O'Donnell, P., & Butterfield, D.

(1983). Resident perceptions of satisfaction and safety: A basis

for change in multi-family housing. Environment and Behavior, 14,

695-724.

 

Weir, A. (1973). The robbery offender. In F. Feeney & A. Weir

(Eds.), The prevention and control of robbery, 1. Davis, CA:

University of California.

 

Weir, H. G. (1974, October). Defensible space in Australian urban

areas. Paper presented to the Training Project Crime and

Delinquency in Urban Areas, Australian Institute of Criminology,

Canberra, Australia.

 

Wekerle, G. R. (1991, July). Planning safer parks for women: A new

agenda for Toronto. Landscape Architectural Review, 5--6.

 

Wekerle, G. R. (1992). A working guide for planning and designing

safer urban environments. Toronto, Ontario: Safe City Committee,

Planning and Development Department.

 

Wekerle, G. R. (2000). From eyes on the street to safe cities.

Places, 13, 44--49.

 

West, M. J., (1985). Landscape views and stress response in the

prison environment. Unpublished master's thesis, University of

Washington, Seattle, WA.

 

West, W. (1978). The short-term careers of serious thieves.

Canadian Journal of Criminology, 20: 169-190.

 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation. (1978). Crime prevention

through environmental design: Technical guideline 7 - Public

planning of outdoor areas. Arlington, VA: Author.

 

Westover, T. (1985). Perceptions of crime and safety in three

Midwestern parks. The Professional Geographer, 37, 410-420.

 

This study looked at perceptions of crime as it affected behavior,

and tested Garofalo's fear of crime model. Fear was examined

through on-site interviews in urban and suburban parks. "Study

results clearly demonstrated differences in safety-related

perceptions and behavior between males and females."

 

Westover, T., Flickinger, T., & Chubb, M. (1980). Crime and law

enforcement. Parks and Recreation, 15, 29-33.

Whitaker, C. (1986). Crime prevention measures (Special Report).

Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice

Statistics.

 

White, R. C. (1932). The relation of felonies to environmental

factors in Indianapolis. Social Forces, 10, 498-513.

 

Whyte, W. H. (1972). Urban recreation use. Preliminary report to

the Citizen's Committee on Environmental Quality in Annual Report

to the President and to the Council on Environmental Quality (June

1972). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the center. New York:

Doubleday.

 

Chapter 3, Street People, discusses the people who work the

streets of cities. Included along with vendors and postal delivery

personnel are the lawless element. The author discusses these

persons; the prostitute, the drug dealer, and the mugger. The

discussions stem from field observation and time lapse analysis of

movements and patterns on the streets. He briefly discusses some

techniques of offenders such as pickpockets and others who work

public outdoor places. Important points are made concerning the

reaction of criminal communities to police presence and

understanding differences between dangerous people and

environments, and ones which are simply undesirable.

 

Wiedermann, D. (1985). How secure are public open spaces? Garten +

Landschaft, 95, 26-27.

 

Wilson, S. (1978). Vandalism and 'defensible space' on London

housing estates. In R. V. Clarke (Ed), Tackling vandalism (Home

Office Research Study No. 47). London: H.M.S.O.

 

This study is concerned with the extent to which vandalism is

affected by building design and layout. Results from a survey of

London municipal housing estates provide limited support for

Newman's 'defensible space' ideas and also show the relevance for

vandalism of the densities at which children are accommodated on

estates.*

Winchester, S., & Jackson, H. (1982). Residential burglary: The

limits of prevention (Home Office Research Study No. 74). London:

H.M.S.O.

 

Wise, J. (1983). Urban environments and altered behavior: Crime

and fear of crime. Paper presented at 14th International

Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association,

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

 

Wood, D. (1981). In defense of indefensible space. In P. J.

Brantingham, & P. L. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental

criminology. Beverly Hills: Sage.

 

In this chapter the author introduces the concept of "screens", a

topic which has been for the most part overlooked. Tying into

surveillance and concealment, Wood's screens are worth examining.

He presents a typology of screens that includes function, mode,

permeability, and range. Wood offers this perceptive observation:

"the environment provides shelter for acts of deviance as a

necessary consequence of its ordinary ongoing struggle to maintain

itself, precisely as the forest provides shade for the growth of

photophobic plants which die or wither in the sunlight. The trees

no more intend to provide the shade immediately invaded by the

mosses and ferns, liverworts and wildflowers, than the farmer does

who in erecting his barn provides a place behind which little

children can smoke. But the trees and the farmer do not intend to

do so either. It is a necessary attendant consequence." (93;

emphasis his)

 

Wright, R. (1974a). Study to determine the impact of street

lighting on street crime: Phase I, final report. Ann Arbor, MI:

University of Michigan.

 

Wright, R. (1974b). The harassed decision maker: Time pressures,

distractions and the use of evidence. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 59, 551-561.

 

Wright, R., & Bennett, T. (1990). Exploring the offender's

perspective: Observing and interviewing criminals. New York:

Springer-Verlag.

 

Wright, R., & Decker, S. H. (1994). Burglars on the job: Street

and residential break-ins. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

 

Wright, R., Decker, S. H., Redfern, A. K., & Smith, D. L. (1992).

A snowball's chance in hell: Doing fieldwork with active

residential burglars. Journal of Research in crime and

delinquency, 29, 148-161.

 

"Criminologists long have recognized the importance of field

studies of active offenders. Nevertheless, the vast majority of

them have shied away from researching criminals 'in the wild' in

the belief that doing so is impractical. This article, based on

the authors' fieldwork with 105 currently active residential

burglars, challenges that assumption. Specifically, it describes

how the authors went about finding these offenders and obtaining

their cooperation. Further, it considers the difficulties involved

in maintaining an on-going field relationship with those who lead

chaotic lives. And lastly, the article outlines the

characteristics of the sample, noting important ways in which it

differs from one collected through criminal justice channels."

(author's abstract)

 

Wright, R., & Logie, R. H. (1988). How young house burglars choose

targets. The Howard Journal, 27, 92-104.

 

This seminal work by two of the most experienced researchers of

offenders' perceptions uses the photograph and interview method to

"determine what features of the immediate environment are

important to juvenile house burglars in their selection of

targets." Building on similar studies, significant differences

were again found between criminals and the non-criminal control

group. Burglars, being consistent as a group and also consistent

with adult burglars in other studies, found "the presence of cover

(surveillability), cars (occupancy), and dogs or alarms...as

affecting their choices of houses" to offend. However, locks

appeared to be "influential in deciding how to break in, but not

in whether or not to do so."

 

Wright, R., Logie, R. H., & Decker, S. H. (1995). Criminal

expertise and offender decision making: An experimental study of

the target selection process in residential burglary. Journal of

Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 39-53.

 

X, Y & Z

 

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Yin, R., Vogel, M., Chaiken, J., & Both, D. (1976). Patrolling the

neighborhood beat: Residents and residential security. Santa

Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

 

Zahm, D., & Cromwell, P. (Eds.). (1994). Proceedings of the

International Seminar on Environmental Criminology and Crime

Analysis. Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical Analysis Center,

Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

 

Zimbardo, P. (1973). A field experiment in auto-shaping. In C.

Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. Stoneham, MA: Architectural Press.

 

Zimring, F. (1978). Policy experiments in general deterrence:

1970-1975. In A. Blumstein, J. Cohen & D. Nagin (Eds.), Deterrence

and incapacitation: Estimating the effects of criminal sanctions

on crime rates. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

 

Zimring, F., & Zuehl, J. (1986). Victim injury and death in urban

robbery: A Chicago study. Journal of Legal Studies, 15, 1-40.

 

 

 

 

 

* Koehler, C. T. (1988). Urban design and crime: A partially

annotated bibliography. Chicago, IL: Council of Planning

Librarians, No. 218.

 

** indicates a quotation from the author(s) of the cited work.

 

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