European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research -

COST Action C11

INDEX

COST ACTION C11 - "Greenstructures and Urban Planning"

TECHNICAL ANNEX CONTENTS

Scope of the research
The following is a copy of the original proposal accepted by the COST Committee in May 2000.

A. BACKGROUND

European co-operation

In addition to economic and social issues, urban citizens, businesses and governments increasingly face ecological aspects of urban development. This is expressed by publications like the "Greenpaper on the Urban Environment" (EC, 1990); "European Sustainable Cities" (EC, 1996); "Environmental Policies for Cities in the 1990s" (OECD, 1990), to mention just a few. In their search for sustainable urban development, policy-makers and researchers can benefit from the exchange of knowledge and experiences of cities that have pioneered in this field. This became apparent on several occasions, for example during the United Nations- Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) Conference on "The ecological challenge in urban planning, the research contribution" in Ankara, 1992.

 

In the preparation of the Ankara conference and in subsequent meetings, a number of researchers, planners and policy makers from different European countries shared their views and experiences in questions related to ecologically sound and sustainable urban development. Out of a broad range of themes, one was chosen to become the focal theme of the Network Greenstructure and Urban Planning.

 

Following the first idea to exchange experiencesthef European Research Network on Greenstructure and Urban Planning was set up at the Dordrecht Conference in 1993, with the intention to exchange regularly knowledge, experiences and views on the many issues of urban development and greenstructure. The body of knowledge would include the results of research in the natural, technical and social sciences, and results of studies on policy making and spatial planning. In the subsequent yearly meetings, paper presentations and discussions on current research were combined with field visits to specific projects in order to develop a shared understanding of specific contexts in different European cities. After the first conference, the Network organised meetings in Poitiers, France (1993), Oslo, Norway (1994), Sheffield, UK (1994), Dordrecht, Netherlands (1995), Oslo, Norway (1996), Paris, France(1996), Geneva, Switzerland (1997) and Ringkobing, Denmark (1998).

 

The rationale behind this COST proposal is the need for deepening and widening European cooperation on greenstructure and urban planning studies. So far, most participants in the Network are Western and Northern European researchers, while Southern, Central and Eastern Europeans can also offer other, new perspectives on the focal theme. Continuation of the Network under COST would stimulate participation from a wider spectrum of European countries, and would also give the opportunity to deepen comparative research work.

 

Greenstructure and urban planning

As a field of research, "greenstructure and urban planning" is concerned with the spatial structure of green areas in the urban landscape and with all planning activities that are essential to create conditions for green areas to perform their vital role for the quality of urban life. The concept of "greenstructure" is used to indicate the position of green areas in the urban landscape. As such "greenstructure" has spatial, social and technical dimensions. The latter is sometimes referred to as "green infrastructure". "Greenstructure", however, is also a planning concept, indicating the intention to develop planning and management tools for a structural role of green areas in the urban fabric and the urban organisation. In this context the proposed COST action is not in the first place concerned with greenstructures as a technical object. Rather, greenstructures are seen in a problem and opportunity perspective. Research in this perspective includes both empirical and normative aspects.

 

Problems of green areas are related to intensive use, building activities, fragmentation by roads, pollution, noise and other forms of pressure imposed on green areas and open space in the existing cities. On the edge of the city there is increased pressure of sub-urbanisation and traffic on surrounding greenbelts. In many cases, green areas are small and scattered. In some cases, however, greenstructure is seen as an opportunity: "green fingers" or "greenways" are turned to backbones of urban development. As there is always some relation to the landscape underlying the urban history, green areas may significantly contribute to the identity of a neighbourhood, a city or an urban region. Cities have developed experiences in addressing these problems and using these opportunities. The proposed COST action will promote the exchange and evaluation of these experiences.

 

Experiences include urban planning issues like approaches to disperse suburban growth, corridor concepts and "compact city" strategies. They also include approaches to communication and decision making, to public-private partnerships, to the real estate and housing market, to technical infrastructure planning and to urban design. The participating researchers and planners may learn from a comparison and assessment of conceptual tools and operational methods used in different cities.

 

To many citizens, green areas are for recreation and sports, but the city's greenstructure also may improve air quality and mesoclimate. It may contribute to biodiversity. It may perform water retention functions and create attractive cycle tracks. The multifunctional nature of greenstructures clearly shows their potential role in ecologically sound and sustainable urban development.

 

 

In relation to other COST actions, Greenstructure and Urban Planning focuses on the planning issues related to green areas and urban open space. The proposed action will complement other European research programmes and contribute to solving problems raised through other COST actions such as A9 "Transformation of European cities and urban governance" (CIVITAS), C8 "Best practice in sustainable urban infrastructure" and E12 "Urban forests and trees".

 

State of the art

The knowledge collected and discussed during the meetings mentioned in the first section may be categorised in three fields: areas, flows and actors.

 

Area studies. The relation between built-up and open space may be defined as density in terms of the amount of people, buildings or activities per surface-area. Obviously, the measured density depends to a large extent on whether density is measured by block, by district or on any other level. In relation to green areas, the built and paved surfaces and the polluting and disturbing effects of human activities are especially relevant. Current density coefficients do not always express these relevant aspects.

 

The quality of open spaces, however, is only partly related to the density of buildings or to functional features. Local geology, hydrology and topography, for example, have left their traces in the history of cities, and sometimes are a source of inspiration for new urban design for built-up and green areas. The interaction of these features with regular blocks and formal structures creates a variety of places and may enhance the identity of the city. "Greenways" create interesting walks and cycle routes through the urban landscape and thus enable city dwellers to discover and enjoy the qualities and identity of their city.

 

In recent years more research focuses on the importance of green areas for biodiversity conservation. Suitable habitat quality and a spatial structure of green areas that connects these habitats, greatly enhances chances for achieving biodiversity objectives. In countries with intensified agricultural land use, many species take refuge to urban areas. Lack of coherence in the urban landscape not only deprives species from a life-support-system, it also impedes city dwellers to get easy access to a coherent network of green areas. Recent studies stress the importance of accessible green areas for the quality of life of city dwellers. Urban areas have been studied to identify the effects for people living in these areas and to find options for improving the conditions of the greenstructure.

 

Flow studies. Here, research focuses primarily on the interactions between traffic and waterflows and greenstructures in the context of urban planning.

 

Studies on traffic show increased dependency on car traffic in low density suburbs, leading to pollution, noise and fragmentation of green areas. As a result of innovative technology traffic flows will be less energy consuming and less polluting in the near future. However, fragmentation and barrier effects caused by transport infrastructure will increasingly affect the spatial quality, especially of green areas. Concentration of traffic flows in multimodal corridors is an interesting strategy that creates opportunities for noise and pollution control and for bridges and tunnels to overcome the barrier problem. The use of public transport is generally high in densely populated cities. This does not mean, however, that increasing density automatically leads to increased use of trains and bicycles. Greenways may contribute to an attractive network of cycle tracks and, in doing so, may be part of traffic strategies.

 

 

Recently, flow studies on sewage systems, rainwater and groundwater flows contributed to new urban water strategies. By providing rainwater storage green areas contribute to the implementation of these strategies. Inversely, in built up areas green areas themselves also benefit from the presence of more water and improved water quality.

 

Other flows such as energy and organic waste, although less important for urban planning and greenstructure, may be included in future studies.

 

Actor studies. Actor studies firstly focus on the driving social and economic forces and the power relations behind urban development. Secondly, success and failure of planning and management practices are studied, especially in the fields of urban renewal, transport policy and the management and maintenance of green areas. These studies have already produced important insights into the role of different actors in decision making. Planning studies suggest it may be advisable to structure decision making along two lines:

 

Decisions about durable "carrying spatial structures" such as greenstructures, transport infrastructure and water networks. Here a central issue is how to plan green areas and spatial greenstructures that can resist the pressure of building and road construction.

 

Decisions about the use of open space and green areas in urban districts. Here the dynamics of activities with relatively short life times need space and freedom.

 

The two lines of decision making have there own key actors and their own communication strategies. An important issue relevant to both lines is the question how to cross the disciplinary and sectoral borders that divide both researchers and practitioners.

 

 

B. OBJECTIVE AND BENEFITS

 

General objective

The main objective of the proposed COST action is to reach a better understanding of the role played by planning, design and management in the interactions between green and built-up areas, improving the way green areas contribute to the quality of life of urban citizens, to the quality of habitats as a basis for biodiversity and to other aspects of sustainable urban development.

 

Benefits

Pilot project schemes organised by the Community, the OECD and by other organisations have demonstrated the importance of comparative analysis at the project level. The present Network seeks to combine research at the project level with studies at the policy level.

 

It is at these two levels that researchers and practitioners from more European countries will benefit from the proposed COST Action. The benefit of comparing projects realised under different conditions is a better understanding of factors that determine success and failure of these projects. The benefit of comparing policy measures is a better understanding of the structural conditions for liveable and sustainable urban environments.

 

The situation in different countries and different cities varies greatly. The research publications and the discussions during the meetings of the Network underline the importance of comparative studies for a better understanding of generic lessons and of ways to do right to diversity.

 

 

C. SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

 

The COST Action will facilitate the exchange and further development of knowledge, practical experience, views, concepts and methods related to the role of greenstructures in urban planning. Against this background a framework for comparative research, a common language for analysing planning issues concerning greenstructures in different urban settings needs to be developed.

 

Some general and more specific questions articulate the objectives of the proposed COST action. These questions are at the basis of a planned comparative research project. Questions result from a series of seminars held by the present network. These seminars will continue to be organised and the COST action will enable them to reach a wider public and to discuss the results of a an extended comparative research programme.

 

Research Questions

The overall question is: To what extent may existing conceptual frameworks for sustainable urban development be used and improved in the context of comparative research on greenstructure and urban planning?

 

The framework to be developed should be useful to formulate research projects addressing a number of questions such as:

 

  • What can be learned from case studies about the interaction processes between greenstructure and urban development? And what about the contribution of greenstructures to the quality of life in cities, to the quality of habitats for biodiversity and to other aspects of sustainable urban development?

 

  • How may cities create structural spatial and organisational conditions for the quality of green and open spaces as a regular part of urban development?

 

  • What can be learned about operational instruments and methods for the management and maintenance of public open space?

 

  • What can be learned about success and failure of projects?

 

There is also a need to initiate thematic studies about more specific questions:

 

  • How to create and assess ecologically sound and sustainable planning and design options for urban greenstructures that are well embedded in the local situation. Such options combine environmental aspects (health, safety, biological diversity) with commercial, social and cultural aspects.

 

  • How to create good procedures for communication and decision making?

 

  • How to deal with power relations in the urban situations where green areas are in a vulnerable position?

 

 

  • How to create good conditions for multidisciplinary cooperation between researchers from the natural, the technical and the social sciences? And how to organise better cooperation between practitioners from different departments?

 

 

Comparative research

 

The general idea is to start parallel case studies in different European cities. The COST action may stimulate national initiatives to set up case studies that are accessible for comparative research. Joint international initiatives with international funding are an option.

 

The following steps are scheduled:

 

1. Defining research issues, questions, methods. Results from previous seminars are an important input at this stage. Map legend and parameters will be chosen for stage 2.

 

2. Mapping and monitoring: The time horizon is 1950-2000-2050. GIS technology will enable us to visualise different options for analysis and design.

 

3. Trends and driving forces: For each city the trends in greenstructure development in the context of all relevant urban processes will be described.

 

4. Planning strategies and methods.

 

Here the main questions are:

 

What are the planning efforts relevant to greenstructure and urban planning? And to what extent have they influenced ongoing physical and social processes?

 

 

5. Projects.

 

Success and failure of smaller projects are assessed at this stage.

 

6. Thematic comparison of case studies.

 

The case study approach focuses on understanding the cases in their own context. A comparison may produce generic lessons about concepts and methods and about substantive issues concerning area, flow and actor aspects of greenstructure and urban planning.

 

Thematic research and seminars

Seminars on thematic issues offer a forum to researchers and practitioners from the participating countries. They offer an opportunity to discuss results of ongoing national research projects and stimulate further studies, both at the national and at an international level.

 

The proceedings of the 1998 Rinkobing seminar on "the local experience" will be published shortly. For 1999 and 2000 two more thematic seminars on topics related to greenstructure and urban planning issues are already planned for. The titles of the seminars are:

 

The communicative approach. Practice and theory of interaction between residents, interest groups, planners, municipal departments and other actors. Different discourses in strategic and operational planning approaches. Gothenburg, 1999.

 

Planning professions, urban politics and urban culture. What kind of expertise do we need in the 21st century? What is the role of experts between political targets and the traditions and perspectives of their profession. Analysis and planning in an era of changing attitudes towards urban culture and the role of green areas. Helsinki, 2000.

 

Working groups of members of the existing Network take the responsibility for preparing, organising and publishing the results of the seminars. These working groups will also formulate themes for further research, possibly in a framework of European comparative research. COST would here offer the opportunity to widen and deepen these initiatives to a wider group of researchers. The themes can then be further developed and adjusted to the interests and experiences of the interested partners.

 

Other themes that are being considered for future seminars in the scope of this Action:

 

Greenways and Green belts

The urban fringe

Linking water and greenstructure

Power relations and greenstructure planning

 

 

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

At the Ringkobing seminar in 1998, a comparative studies working group has been set up with a long term objective: formulate a methodological and theoretical framework on the basis of which comparative research can be carried out. The comparative studies working group will first elaborate research themes and make an inventory of the existing research-base. Knowledge from the different participating countries will be compared in order to assess specific input and research needs. This first inventory is needed in order to create a good fit between existing research results, and to identify in which areas existing results are insufficient, incomplete or outdated on the other hand. Parallel to the thematic working groups described below, the comparative studies working group will continue to work on a comparative conceptual framework and methodology by doing case-studies. A first pilot project including two cities, in France and The Netherlands, is scheduled for 1999. The comparative studies working group will discuss its first findings with other participants in the Network at the Gothenburg seminar, October 1999.

 

Thematic working groups of the Network Greenstructure and Urban Planning are now preparing the seminars scheduled for 1999 and 2000. Using the experience of the Rinkoping Seminar, it is planned to engage the participants in an active workshop, using their expertise in a local planning situation. Network activities will go on as planned.

 

 

D. ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

 

Proposed programme for the COST action

In case the COST action can start in the year 2000, the four year's programme might look as follows:

 

2000 January Start of the COST action.

April 1st meeting; Introduction to COST; Pilot project (France, Netherlands) presentation; Starting up of working groups, election of key persons

September Seminar "Planning professions" (Helsinki); 2nd meeting; working groups; agreement on conceptual framework; preparing case studies

 

2001 January Start of national case studies

April 3rd meeting; interim reports working groups and case study groups

September Seminar "Greenways and greenbelts"; 4th meeting; interim reports working groups and case study groups

 

2002 April 5th meeting; interim reports working groups and case study groups

September Seminar "The urban fringe"; 6th meeting; interim reports working groups and case study groups

 

2003 January Publication of case study reports

April 7th meeting; workshop with final presentation and discussion of case studies

September Seminar: "Greenstructure and Urban Planning"; thematic workshops; assessment of conceptual framework; proposals for further research

 

 

 

At the moment the new COST Action will get operational, the first six months will be needed to introduce COST, to establish the working groups, elect chairmen and to develop the themes of the working groups. Two types of working groups will be established: thematic working groups and a comparative studies working group. A management committee, assisted by a secretariat, will be in charge of the organisation of the Action.

 

Each thematic working group will work towards the organisation of a seminar or a workshop during the concluding seminar and will publish the results. One of the objectives of the seminars is to identify which outcomes require further research, and to elaborate new ideas for follow-up research. Additional seminars may be proposed. Of course, the composition of the working groups may change after this reorientation. Researchers, policy makers and other practitioners will interact within each working group. Special efforts shall be made to ensure the participation of young researchers and students. Where strong links with other COST actions exists, these will be involved in the preparation and organisation of the seminars. The results of each seminar will be published and presented on the Internet.

 

The final result will be a collection of case studies with detailed descriptions and illustrations, an assessment of the conceptual framework for comparative research and an analysis of thematic issues, both procedural and substantive.

 

E. DISSEMINATION

 

Sharing research findings with other researchers, policy makers and professionals responsible for policy implementation will be a key activity throughout the entire research process. Rather than just disseminating a final report of findings at the end of the Action-period, the group intends to actively look for interaction with others. This will be done by setting up and keeping up-dated an Internet web-site containing up-to-date information on projects, seminars, as well as reports of past discussions and information about people involved in the Action. This approach also allows the group to add new and related dimensions to the content of the research if relevant societal or policy developments occur during the research. The Internet site will be designed to encourage comments from other experts by using a _mail to-_ system directly from the Internet site to a web-site controller who will regularly add significant comments from outsiders as well as members of the Network to the web-site. The web-site will be widely advertised in the academic and professional press.

 

"Dissemination" is therefore seen not as a one-way, but an interactive process, wherein researchers actively seek feedback. Policy makers will be explicitly invited to give input. Dependent on the topic of the seminar, people who are responsible for policy formulation or implementation will be invited to participate - if not in person than by sending by E-mail reactions and information to be included on the web site.

 

This interactive approach was piloted in the group's most recent seminar on sustainable urban greenspace; planning and management at the local level". Presentations of research projects first gave an overview of insights and experiences in several countries. Local staff of the municipality were then invited to formulate their local experiences and needs with regard to the planning and management of their local greenstructure. Members of the Network worked towards the formulation of a range of solutions through a series of workshops. These were then presented to the local staff, who gave their feedback on relevance, practicability and feasibility of such solutions. All the papers and a summary of the workshops are being prepared for inclusion in a web site, to be available to a wider audience through Internet. COST can facilitate possibilities for the network to employ this approach on a more structural basis.

 

It is intended that this approach to dissemination of results will allow the proceedings of each seminar to be made widely and quickly available to policy makers, professionals working in local communities and to other researchers in this and related fields. COST-funding will enable the network to assess the impact of this approach. In addition, the more traditional dissemination methods apply as well, such as annually publishing the seminar papers in printed format and encouraging the Network members to prepare summary papers for their national academic and professional press.

 

The site on the Internet will be designed to inform interested people on:

 

 

  • the history, objectives and activities of the network;
  • announcements of seminars
  • the proceedings and results of the seminars;
  • names and E-mail addresses of contact persons in each EU-country.

 

Ideas on how this multi-media approach can be achieved have been discussed amongst current network participants and the knowledge and skills to implement this approach are available in the network - see:

http://www.map21ltd.com

 


UNOFFICIAL ADDITIONAL NOTES:

ECONOMIC DIMENSION

 

The following COST countries have actively participated in the preparation of this proposal: The Netherlands; Denmark; Sweden; Norway; Finland; France; Great Britain; Germany; Poland.

Note: On the basis of the national estimates provided by the representatives of these countries research activities to the value of EURO 9 million at 1998 prices are being carried out in the subject area of this COST action.

The total number of person-years involved in the related research projects is about 75 spread over 90 researchers.

WHAT "COST" COVERS

Travel expenses of persons involved in related "Missions.. Contact your national representative

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

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 Memorandum of Understanding

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND

European cooperation

Greenstructure and urban planning

State of the art

OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS

General objective

Benefits

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME

Research questions

Comparative research

Thematic research and seminars

Existing network Greenstructure and Urban Planning

ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE

DISSEMINATION

Back to intro page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Meetings

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